May 21, 2024  
2022-2023 College Catalog 
2022-2023 College Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

BIO 218 - Human Pathophysiology

4 Credits, 4 Contact Hours
4 lecture periods 0 lab periods

Pathophysiological processes in humans and the development of clinical reasoning skills that distinguish between normal physiology and the physiology of disease or injury. Includes the etiology, clinical presentation, and appropriate treatment of selected disease processes. Also includes the pathophysiology of the hematological, cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, neurologic, musculoskeletal and reproductive systems.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 201IN , BIO 202IN , and BIO 205IN  
Information: This course is a prerequisite for the concurrent Associate Degree/Baccalaureate Degree Nursing program through Pima Community College and Northern Arizona University.

Course Learning Outcomes
1. Describe abnormal physiologic processes associated with homeostatic imbalances and common disease states.

2. Describe the etiology, sign/symptoms, diagnoses and treatments of organ systems disorders.

Performance Objectives:
1. Describe the processes that lead to cell injury and describe responses for healing, including inflammation and fever.

2. Identify the differences between physiological functioning and pathophysiological processes in the various systems of the human body, including the clinical rationale for therapeutic interventions.

3. Apply critical thinking to analyze presentation of signs and symptoms based on the underlying pathophysiological processes.

4. Outline the immune response and describe the pathogenesis of immune disorders.

5. Describe the pathology of various diseases, including: neoplastic disease, hematological disorders (red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and coagulopathies.

6. Describe the pathophysiology of the cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, renal, endocrine, reproductive, skeletal and muscular, and nervous systems.

  1. Cellular Injury, Adaptation, and Death
    1. Normal and altered cell/tissue biology
    2. Tissue injury and adaptation
    3. Genetic alterations and disorders
    4. Neoplastic disease and metastasis
  2. Inflammation, Infection, and Altered Immune States
    1. Common bacterial, viral, and fungal infections
    2. Wound healing
      1. Decubitus ulcers
      2. Appropriate nutrition
    3. Altered immune states
      1. Hypersensitivity reactions
      2. Immune deficiency disorders – human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and others
      3. Common autoimmune disorders
        1. Systemic lupus erythematosus
        2. Scleroderma
        3. Myasthenia gravis
        4. Multiple sclerosis
  3. Alterations in Hematological Function
    1. Red blood cells (RBC) disorders – anemias
    2. Common bleeding and clotting disorders
    3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
    4. White blood cells (WBC) disorders
      1. Leukemias
      2. Lymphomas
  4. Alterations in Cardiovascular Function
    1. Atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis
    2. Hypertension
    3. Ischemic heart disease
    4. Valvular heart disorders
    5. Common cardiomyopathies
    6. Heart failure
    7. Common congenital disorders
    8. Peripheral vascular disease
      1. Venous disease
      2. Arterial disease
      3. Aneurysms
    9. Cardiac arrhythmias
  5. Alterations in Pulmonary Function
    1. Pulmonary emboli
    2. Obstructive disease
      1. Emphysema
      2. Chronic bronchitis
    3. Restrictive disease
      1. Asthma
      2. Pulmonary fibrosis
    4. Common pulmonary infections
    5. Lung cancer
  6. Alterations in Uro-Renal Function
    1. Common infectious states
    2. Obstructive disorders
    3. Glomerular disorders
    4. Fluid and electrolyte disorders
    5. Acid-base imbalances
    6. Renal failure
      1. Acute
      2. Chronic
  7. Alterations in Endocrine Function
    1. Diabetes Mellitus
      1. Type I
      2. Type II
    2. Metabolic syndrome and energy disorders
    3. Thyroid disorders
    4. Parathyroid disorders
    5. Hypothalamic and pituitary disorders
    6. Adrenal disorders – cortical and medullary
  8. Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function
    1. Common esophageal and gastric disorders
    2. Common disorders of the small intestine
      1. Etiology of diarrhea
      2. Malabsorption syndromes
    3. Common disorders of the large intestine
      1. Appendicitis and diverticular disease
      2. Inflammatory bowel disorders
    4. Malignancies
  9. Alterations in Hepatic, Biliary, and Pancreatic Function
    1. Liver disorders
      1. Alcohol withdrawal – Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment (CIWA)
      2. Hepatitis
      3. Cirrhosis
    2. Gall bladder disorders
      1. Cholelithiasis
      2. Cholecystitis
    3. Pancreatic disorders (including pancreatic cancer)
  10. Alterations of Neurologic Function
    1. Neurotrauma
    2. Seizure disorders
    3. Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
    4. Common neurodegenerative diseases
      1. Alzheimer’s disease
      2. Parkinson’s disease
      3. Delirium and dementia - Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) score
    5. Common infectious disorders
      1. Meningitis
      2. Encephalitis
    6. Neurobiology of mental illnesses
      1. Mood disorders
      2. Schizophrenia
    7. Pain
    8. Peripheral neuropathy
  11. Alterations in Musculoskeletal Function
    1. Traumatic disorders of bone and joints
    2. Infectious state-osteomyelitis
    3. Osteoporosis
    4. Arthritic and muscular disorders
      1. Osteoarthritis
      2. Rheumatoid arthritis
      3. Myositis disorders
      4. Rhabdomyolysis
  12. Alterations in Reproductive Function
    1. Common reproductive disorders
    2. Reproductive cancers
    3. Prostate and testicular disorders
    4. Common infectious diseases
  13. Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome and Shock
    1. Cardiopulmonary
    2. Septic
    3. Multiple trauma