Jan 28, 2022  
2021-2022 College Catalog 
    
2021-2022 College Catalog

Course Descriptions


Legend for Courses

HC/HN: Honors Course  IN/IH: Integrated lecture/lab  LB: Lab  LC: Clinical Lab  LS: Skills Lab  WK: Co-op Work
SUN#: is a prefix and number assigned to certain courses that represent course equivalency at all Arizona community colleges and the three public universities. Learn more at www.aztransfer.com/sun.

 

Radiologic Technology

  
  •  

    RAD 170 - Medical Imaging Fundamentals

    2 Credits, 2 Contact Hours
    2 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Principles of radiographic imaging. Includes program orientation, production of diagnostic radiation, image formation, ethics and professionalism, patient care and assessment, age specific care considerations, and radiographic positioning of the abdomen and chest.

    Corequisite(s): RAD 170LB  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Define radiologic technologist profession and scope of practice, and define the ethical and legal issues for health care professionals as it relates to age-specific care for infants, children, adults and elderly patients.
    2. Use radiographic positioning terminology and demonstrate proper radiation protection practices, patient assessment, infection control, transfer practices, manipulation, function of x-ray units, and computerized reader systems. 
    3. Define and demonstrate factors that affect image quality and critique images based on Bontrager’s positioning criteria.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Identify the initials which represent the modalities the ARRT certifies.
    2. Distinguish and explain the purpose of: ARRT, ASRT, MRTBE, and ASSRT.
    3. Discuss the ARRT examination procedure by describing the candidate’s general qualifications and educational requirements.
    4. Distinguish between the following specialties and safety concerns found in radiology: CT, MRI, Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasound (Sonography), Radiation Therapy (Oncology), Cardiovascular Interventional Technology, and Mammography.
    5. Discuss the discovery of X-ray.
    6. Identify exposure, non-exposure, overexposure and underexposure on a radiograph.
    7. List the four measures a radiographer can take to protect the patient from excess radiation and improve the quality of the radiograph.
    8. State what the letters ALARA stand for.
    9. Describe the four (4) ways ALARA can be achieved.
    10. Describe and describe the function of each lock on the x-ray tube housing.
    11. Identify the distance indicators: SID = Source-Image Distance.
    12. Maneuver the tube and collimate to the cassettes to a 10 x 12 size and a 14 x 17 size.
    13. Identify and explain the following abbreviations: CR, SID (same as FFD and TFD), KVP, MA, S, and MA.
    14. List the basic components of the x-ray tube.
    15. Describe the components on the control panel.
    16. Define standard terms used in radiographic positioning. 
    17. Describe the name of the four common body types.
    18. Determine the degree of inspiration on chest radiography.
    19. Describe patient preparation for chest radiography.
    20. Identify the various part of the lungs (base, hilum, apex, costophrenic angles) pm a chest radiograph.
    21. Evaluate radiographs of the chest according to Bontrager’s evaluation criteria.
    22. Identify the five topographic landmarks that can be used for positioning the abdomen.
    23. Complete all requirements for clinical admission as stated in the RAD Student Handbook.

    Outline:
    1. Orientation
      1. Course outline
      2. Program guidelines
      3. Specialization and certification within the Radiologic Technology profession
      4. Professional organizations
      5. History of radiography
      6. Campus laboratory imaging equipment
    2. Production of Diagnostic Radiation
      1. Basic x-ray tube components
      2. Control panel
        1. Exposure factors
        2. Warm-up procedure
      3. X-ray beam
    3. Image Formation
      1. Central ray (CR)
      2. Digital radiography, computerized radiography (DR/CR) reader
    4. Ethics and Professionalism
      1. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) / medical legal issues
      2. Professional behavior and attitudes
      3. Code of ethics/conduct
    5. Patient Care and Assessment
    6. Age Specific Care Considerations
      1. Radiation protection
      2. Patient preparation / clinical history
      3. Professional communication
      4. Body mechanics / patient transfer
      5. Standard precautions / infection control
      6. Emergency situations
    7. Radiographic Positioning of the Abdomen and Chest
      1. Anatomy
      2. Basic radiographic positions
        1. Abdomen
          1. Kidney ureters bladder (KUB)
          2. Upright
          3. Lateral
          4. Lateral decubitus
        2. Chest
          1. Posterior anoterior (PA) and lateral
          2. Anteroposterior (AP) supine
          3. Lateral decubitus
          4. Both anterior obliques
          5. Lordotic
      3. Radiographic review
      4. Pertinent pathology


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2019/2020
  
  •  

    RAD 170LB - Medical Imaging Fundamentals Lab

    1 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 3 lab periods

    This is the lab portion of RAD 170 . Principles of radiographic imaging. Includes program orientation, production of diagnostic radiation, image formation, ethics and professionalism, patient care and assessment, age specific care considerations, and radiographic positioning of the abdomen and chest.

    Corequisite(s): RAD 170  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Demonstrate radiographic positions for chest and abdomen to include correct central ray, centering point, source to image distance, part alignment, and shielding.
    2. Demonstrate safe operation of digital, computerized, and mobile radiographic units. 

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Identify the initials which represent the modalities the ARRT certifies.
    2. Distinguish and explain the purpose of: ARRT, ASRT, MRTBE, and ASSRT.
    3. Discuss the ARRT examination procedure by describing the candidate’s general qualifications and educational requirements.
    4. Distinguish between the following specialties and safety concerns found in radiology: CT, MRI, Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasound (Sonography), Radiation Therapy (Oncology), Cardiovascular Interventional Technology, and Mammography.
    5. Discuss the discovery of X-ray.
    6. Identify exposure, non-exposure, overexposure and underexposure on a radiograph.
    7. List the four measures a radiographer can take to protect the patient from excess radiation and improve the quality of the radiograph.
    8. State what the letters ALARA stand for.
    9. Describe the four (4) ways ALARA can be achieved.
    10. Describe and describe the function of each lock on the x-ray tube housing.
    11. Identify the distance indicators: SID = Source-Image Distance.
    12. Maneuver the tube and collimate to the cassettes to a 10 x 12 size and a 14 x 17 size.
    13. Identify and explain the following abbreviations: CR, SID (same as FFD and TFD), KVP, MA, S, and MA.
    14. List the basic components of the x-ray tube.
    15. Describe the components on the control panel.
    16. Define standard terms used in radiographic positioning. 
    17. Describe the name of the four common body types.
    18. Determine the degree of inspiration on chest radiography.
    19. Describe patient preparation for chest radiography.
    20. Identify the various part of the lungs (base, hilum, apex, costophrenic angles) pm a chest radiograph.
    21. Evaluate radiographs of the chest according to Bontrager’s evaluation criteria.
    22. Identify the five topographic landmarks that can be used for positioning the abdomen.
    23. Complete all requirements for clinical admission as stated in the RAD Student Handbook.

    Outline:
    1. Orientation
      1. Course outline
      2. Program guidelines
      3. Specialization and certification within the Radiologic Technology profession
      4. Professional organizations
      5. History of radiography
      6. Campus laboratory imaging equipment
    2. Production of Diagnostic Radiation
      1. Basic x-ray tube components
      2. Control panel
        1. Exposure factors
        2. Warm-up procedure
      3. X-ray beam
    3. Image Formation
      1. Central ray (CR)
      2. Digital radiography, computerized radiography (DRCR) reader
    4. Ethics and Professionalism
      1. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) / medical legal issues
      2. Professional behavior and attitudes
      3. Code of ethics/conduct
    5. Patient Care and Assessment
    6. Age Specific Care Considerations
      1. Radiation protection
      2. Patient preparation / clinical history
      3. Professional communication
      4. Body mechanics / patient transfer
      5. Standard precautions / infection control
      6. Emergency situations
    7. Radiographic Positioning of the Abdomen and Chest
      1. Anatomy
      2. Basic radiographic positions
        1. Abdomen
          1. Kidney ureters bladder (KUB)
          2. Upright
          3. Lateral
          4. Lateral decubitus
        2. Chest
          1. Posterior anoterior (PA) and lateral
          2. Anteroposterior (AP) supine
          3. Lateral decubitus
          4. Both anterior obliques
          5. Lordotic
      3. Radiographic review
      4. Pertinent pathology


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2019/2020
  
  •  

    RAD 171 - Radiographic Positioning I

    3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Overview of radiographic procedures. Includes standard terms, general considerations, positioning considerations for routine and special radiographic procedures, and radiographic positions of the upper extremities, shoulder girdle, and lower extremities.

    Prerequisite(s): BIO 201IN , RAD 170  and RAD 170LB .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , RAD 173LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Discuss general procedural considerations for radiographic examinations to include assessment and proper documentation of exam and patient identification.
    2. Evaluate images for accurate positioning, centering, appropriate anatomy, pertinent pathology, and image quality as it relates to computerized and digital radiography.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Demonstrate the centering point (CP), central ray (CR), body part position, image size, respiration, distance, and shielding for all 79 exam projections on a phantom and or student.
    2. Discuss general procedural considerations for radiographic examinations to include assessment and proper documentation of exam and patient identification.
    3. Adapt radiographic procedures based on special considerations.
    4. Evaluate images for accurate positioning, centering, appropriate anatomy, and overall image quality.
    5. Explain radiographic procedures to a fellow student in a simulation exercise.
    6. Apply general radiation safety and protection practices associated with radiologic examinations.
    7. Identify specific anatomy of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder girdle, pelvis, chest and abdomen on a radiograph.
    8. Describe the criteria or means of evaluating the radiograph for accurate anteroposterior (AP), oblique, and lateral positions.
    9. Discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable radiographs for collimation, exposure factors, and positioning errors.
    10. Identify alternative techniques used to radiograph age specific groups and trauma and disabled patients.
    11. Identify type of joints for upper, lower extremities, and shoulder girdle.
    12. Discuss the role pathology plays in positioning and technique development. 

    Outline:
    1. Standard Terms
      1. Radiographic positions/projections/views
      2. Positioning terms
      3. General planes
      4. Terminology of movement and direction
      5. Positioning aids/protective devices
      6. Accessory equipment
    2. General Considerations
      1. Evaluation of radiographic orders
      2. Clinical history and patient assessment
      3. Patient preparation and education
      4. Room preparation
      5. Patient assistance
      6. Patient monitoring
      7. Image evaluation
      8. Patient dismissal
    3. Positioning Considerations for Routine and Special Radiographic Procedures
      1. Patient instructions
      2. Part positioning
      3. Image receptor selection and placement
      4. Beam alignment and angulations
      5. Beam limitations and shielding
      6. Special considerations
    4. Radiographic Positions of the Upper Extremities
      1. Fingers
      2. Thumb
      3. Hand
      4. Wrist
      5. Forearm
      6. Elbow
      7. Humerus
      8. Radiograph technique development
      9. Radiation protection
      10. Identification of pertinent anatomy and pathology
      11. Image critique and analysis
    5. Radiographic Positions of the Shoulder Girdle
      1. Shoulder
      2. Scapula
      3. Acromioclavicular (A.C.) joints
      4. Clavicle
      5. Radiograph technique development
      6. Radiation protection
      7. Identification of pertinent anatomy and pathology
      8. Image critique and analysis
    6. Radiographic Positions of the Lower Extremities
      1. Toes
      2. Foot
      3. Calcaneus
      4. Ankle
      5. Tibia and fibula
      6. Knee
      7. Femur
      8. Femur proximal routine and trauma x 4 views
      9. Leg lengths
      10. Radiograph technique development
      11. Radiation protection
      12. Identification of pertinent anatomy and pathology
      13. Image critique and analysis


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 171LB - Radiographic Positioning I Lab

    0.75 Credits, 2.5 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 25 lab periods

    This is the lab portion of RAD 171 . Review of radiographic procedures. Includes standard terms, general considerations, positioning considerations for routine and special radiographic procedures, and radiographic positions of the upper extremities, shoulder girdle, and lower extremities.

    Prerequisite(s): AIS 122 /HIS 122  or AIS 206 /ANT 206 , BIO 201IN , PSY 101 , RAD 170 , RAD 170LB , and WRT 102 .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , RAD 173LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Demonstrate the centering point (CP), central ray (CR), body part position, image size, respiration, distance, and shielding for all 79 exam projections on a phantom and/or student.
    2. Adapt radiographic procedures and techniques based on special considerations, age specific groups, and body habitus. 
    3. Apply general radiation safety and protection practices associated with radiologic examinations.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe standard positioning terms and demonstrate proper positioning aids.
    2. Demonstrate the centering point (CP), central ray (CR), body part position, image size, respiration, distance, and shielding for all 79 exam projections on a phantom and or student.
    3. Discuss general procedural considerations for radiographic examinations to include assessment and proper documentation of exam and patient identification.
    4. Adapt radiographic procedures based on special considerations.
    5. Evaluate images for accurate positioning, centering, appropriate anatomy, and overall image quality.
    6. Explain radiographic procedures to a fellow student in a simulation exercise.
    7. Apply general radiation safety and protection practices associated with radiologic examinations.
    8. Identify specific anatomy of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder girdle, pelvis, chest and abdomen on a radiograph.
    9. Describe the criteria or means of evaluating the radiograph for accurate anteroposterior (AP), oblique, and lateral positions.
    10. Discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable radiographs for collimation, exposure factors, and positioning errors.
    11. Identify alternative techniques used to radiograph age specific groups and trauma and disabled patients.
    12. Identify type of joints for upper, lower extremities, and shoulder girdle.
    13. Discuss the role pathology plays in positioning and technique development. 

    Outline:
    1. Standard Terms
      1. Radiographic positions/projections/views
      2. Positioning terms
      3. General planes
      4. Terminology of movement and direction
      5. Positioning aids/protective devices
      6. Accessory equipment
    2. General Considerations
      1. Evaluation of radiographic orders
      2. Clinical history and patient assessment
      3. Patient preparation and education
      4. Room preparation
      5. Patient assistance
      6. Patient monitoring
      7. Image evaluation
      8. Patient dismissal
    3. Positioning Considerations for Routine and Special Radiographic Procedures
      1. Patient instructions
      2. Part positioning
      3. Image receptor selection and placement
      4. Beam alignment and angulations
      5. Beam limitations and shielding
      6. Special considerations
    4. Radiographic Positions of the Upper Extremities
      1. Fingers
      2. Thumb
      3. Hand
      4. Wrist
      5. Forearm
      6. Elbow
      7. Humerus
      8. Radiograph technique development
      9. Radiation protection
      10. Identification of pertinent anatomy and pathology
      11. Image critique and analysis
    5. Radiographic Positions of the Shoulder Girdle
      1. Shoulder
      2. Scapula
      3. Acromioclavicular (A.C.) joints
      4. Clavicle
      5. Radiograph technique development
      6. Radiation protection
      7. Identification of pertinent anatomy and pathology
      8. Image critique and analysis
    6. Radiographic Positions of the Lower Extremities
      1. Toes
      2. Foot
      3. Calcaneus
      4. Ankle
      5. Tibia and fibula
      6. Knee
      7. Femur
      8. Femur proximal routine and trauma x 4 views
      9. Leg lengths
      10. Radiograph technique development
      11. Radiation protection
      12. Identification of pertinent anatomy and pathology
      13. Image critique and analysis


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 172 - Medical Imaging Technology I

    3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Introduction to the principles of x-ray production. Includes matter and the atom, mass and energy; electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetism; x-ray tubes, x-ray generators, diagnostic x-ray systems, ALARA guidelines and practices, and the prime factors.

    Prerequisite(s): BIO 201IN , RAD 170  and RAD 170LB .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172LB , RAD 173LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Describe the concepts of the atom, matter, mass, and energy.
    2. Discuss the principles of electricity, magnetism and electromagnetism and calculate mathematical problems related to each.
    3. Describe the component and operation of the x-ray tube and x-ray generators and calculate mathematical problems related to each. 
    4. Discuss the types of x-ray systems in modern imaging departments.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe the characteristics of matter and energy.
    2. Identify the various forms of energy.
    3. Define electromagnetic radiation and specifically ionizing radiation.
    4. State the relative intensity of ionizing radiation from various sources.
    5. Relate the accidental discovery of x-rays by Roentgen.
    6. Discuss examples of human injury caused by radiation.
    7. List the concepts of basic radiation protection.
    8. Discuss the derivation of scientific systems of measurements.
    9. List the three systems of measurement.
    10. Identify nine categories of mechanics.
    11. List and define units of radiation and radioactivity.
    12. Review mathematics for radiologic science.
    13. Identify the structure of the atom and electron binding energy.
    14. Explain the difference between two forms of ionizing radiation: particulate and Electromagnatic.
    15. Discuss half-life and radioactivity.
    16. Discuss the electromagnetic spectrum.
    17. Describe the difference between Frequency and Wavelength.
    18. Describe and compute math problems for Inverse Square Law.
    19. Properties of matter and energy.
    20. Define types of electric circuits.
    21. Compute math problems for OHM’s law and Power formula.
    22. Relate the experiments of Oersted, Lenz, and Faraday in defining the relationships between electricity and magnetism.
    23. Explain the operation of the high-voltage generator, including the Filament Transformer and the rectifiers.
    24. Relate the important differences among single-phase, three-phase, and high-frequency power.
    25. Explain how the different types of transformers work.
    26. Discuss the different types of generators and how they work.
    27. Describe the general design of and x-ray tube.
    28. Define actual and effective focal spots.
    29. Define and draw a representation of the Line Focus Principal.
    30. Define Bucky/Grid Factor and be able to compute math problems.
    31. Describe how added beam filtration effects density and contrast.
    32. Explain the types of Compensating filters and when to use them.

    Outline:
    1. Matter and the Atom, Mass, and Energy
    2. Electricity, Magnetism, and Electromagnetism
    3. The X-Ray Tube
    4. X-Ray Generators
    5. Diagnostic X-Ray Systems
    6. ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) Guidelines and Practices
    7. The Prime Factors


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 172LB - Medical Imaging Technology I Lab

    0.5 Credits, 1.5 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 1.5 lab periods

    This is the lab portion of RAD 172 . Introduction to the principles of x-ray production. Includes matter and the atom, mass and energy; electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetism; x-ray tubes, x-ray generators, diagnostic x-ray systems, ALARA guidelines and practices, and the prime factors.

    Prerequisite(s): BIO 201IN , RAD 170  and RAD 170LB .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 173LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Describe ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) guidelines and practices. 
    2. Discuss the “Prime Factors”; milliamperage, kilovoltage, exposure time, and distance and calculate mathematical problems related to each. 

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe the characteristics of matter and energy.
    2. Identify the various forms of energy.
    3. Define electromagnetic radiation and specifically ionizing radiation
    4. State the relative intensity of ionizing radiation from various sources
    5. Relate the accidental discovery of x-rays by Roentgen
    6. Discuss examples of human injury caused by radiation
    7. List the concepts of basic radiation protection
    8. Discuss the derivation of scientific systems of measurements
    9. List the three systems of measurement
    10. Identify nine categories of mechanics
    11. List and define units of radiation and radioactivity
    12. Review mathematics for radiologic science
    13. Identify the structure of the atom and electron binding energy
    14. Explain the difference between two forms of ionizing radiation: particulate and electromagnetic
    15. Discuss half-life and radioactivity
    16. Discuss the electromagnetic spectrum
    17. Describe the difference between Frequency and Wavelength
    18. Describe and compute math problems for Inverse Square Law
    19. Properties of matter and energy
    20. Define types of electric circuits
    21. Compute math problems for OHM’s law and Power formula
    22. Relate the experiments of Oersted, Lenz, and Faraday in defining the relationships between electricity and magnetism.
    23. Explain the operation of the high-voltage generator, including the Filament Transformer and the rectifiers
    24. Relate the important differences among single-phase, three-phase, and high-frequency power
    25. Explain how the different types of transformers work
    26. Discuss the different types of generators and how they work
    27. Describe the general design of and x-ray tube
    28. Define actual and effective focal spots
    29. Define and draw a representation of the Line Focus Principal
    30. Define Bucky/Grid Factor and be able to compute math problems
    31. Describe how added beam filtration effects density and contrast
    32. Explain the types of Compensating filters and when to use them

    Outline:
    1. Matter and the Atom, Mass, and Energy
    2. Electricity, Magnetism, and Electromagnetism
    3. The X-Ray Tube
    4. X-Ray Generators
    5. Diagnostic X-Ray Systems
    6. ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) Guidelines and Practices
    7. The Prime Factors


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 173LC - Clinical Education I

    6 Credits, 24 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 24 lab periods

    Introduction to the first clinical practicum. Includes clinical site orientation, radiographic equipment and supplies, exam protocols, and routine and special radiographic examinations.

    Prerequisite(s): BIO 201IN , RAD 170  and RAD 170LB .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB  
    Information: Clinical Education Centers may require additional fees and a tuberculosis skin test. Students must be admitted to RAD program before enrolling in this course. Competency-based assignments, concepts of patient-centered clinical practice and professional development shall be discussed, examined, performed and evaluated under the supervision of a certified Radiologic Technologist. The clinical practicum incorporates critical analysis, integration, synthesis and evaluation of concepts and theories in the performance of radiographic procedures.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Adapt procedures and demonstrate patient-centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, disability, special needs, ethnicity or culture.
    2. Demonstrate professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    3. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality, patient identification, pertinent pathology, and measures to improve unacceptable images.
    4. Complete a minimum of eight (8) competencies in the semester and four (4) random re-checks on completed competency.
    5. Complete the required clinical hours.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Integrate the radiographer’s scope of practice and practice standards into clinical practice setting.
    2. Prepare the technologies and methodologies for the performance of radiologic procedures.
    3. Support patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, and disability, special needs, ethnicity or culture.
    4. Execute the imaging procedures under the appropriate level of supervision.
    5. Act consistently to maintain patient confidentiality standards.
    6. Demonstrate the proper and safe use of stationary, mobile, fluoroscopic, and medical imaging equipment. 
    7. Ensure that performance reflects professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    8. Report equipment malfunctions and assists in corrective actions when appropriate.
    9. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality and patient documentation, and demonstrate competence in determining measures to improve inadequate images. 
    10. Demonstrate the proper and safe utilization of general radiographic equipment.
    11. Demonstrate skills in assessment and evaluation of psychological and physical changes in the patient’s condition and carry out appropriate actions.
    12. Perform duties, which include radiography room cleanliness, and stocking supplies.
    13. Adapt procedures to meet age-specific, disease-specific and cultural needs of patients.  
    14. Respond appropriately to patient emergencies, and document care in the patient record. 
    15. Apply standard and transmission-based precautions, and apply the appropriate medical asepsis and sterile technique. 
    16. Demonstrate human relations’ skills when interacting with patients, peers, and supervisors in the clinical setting.
    17. Choose patient and family education strategies appropriate to the comprehension level of the patient/ family.
    18. Consult with the supervisor or qualified staff technologist or quality control technologist regarding the diagnostic quality of the completed examination.

    Outline:
    1. Clinical Site Orientation
      1. Hospital
      2. Department
    2. Radiographic Equipment and Supplies
      1. Screens
      2. Grids
      3. Accessory equipment
      4. Inventory
      5. Stretchers
      6. Wheelchairs
    3. Exam Protocols
    4. Routine and Special Radiographic Examinations
      1. Upper extremities
      2. Lower extremities
      3. Abdomen
      4. Chest
      5. Shoulder girdle


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2018/2019
  
  •  

    RAD 174 - Radiographic Positioning II

    3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 171 . Includes routine and special positioning of the pelvis, hips, SI joints, boney thorax, and vertebral column. Also includes pediatric radiography, trauma/surgical mobile radiography, and related osseous system pathology.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , RAD 173LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 174LB , RAD 175LB , RAD 175 , RAD 176LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Demonstrate routine and special radiographic positions for the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx, spine, pelvis, hips and boney thorax, on a person or phantom in a laboratory setting.
    2. Evaluate images for positioning, centering, radiation safety, pertinent pathology, appropriate anatomy, and image quality as it is applied to digital and computerized systems.
    3. Define the common types of surgical procedures using mobile/C-Arm imaging, to include maintaining a sterile field with the C-Arm type fluoroscopy units.  

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Perform basic and trauma projections, for the pelvis, and SI joint, total spine, thorax, surgical and portable images and procedures.
    2. Evaluate radiographs according to Bontrager evaluation criteria.
    3. Identify the need for grids and how it would affect the resulting radiograph.
    4. Discuss and identify distortion, elongation, grid cut off, contrast and density during image evaluation. 
    5. Identify joint classification.
    6. Define Image Gently/Wise and discuss the role of the pediatric technologist before, during, and after a radiographic procedure.
    7. Explain various immobilization devices to prevent motion during the exposure.
    8. Describe various radiation protective measures for minimizing radiation dose to the pediatric patient.
    9. Demonstrate routine/special positions used for the pediatric patient in the Radiology Department.
    10. Define the stages of growth and development.
    11. Explain the two positioning principles that must be observed during trauma radiography.
    12. Describe the two primary types of mobile radiographic units and their operating principles.
    13. Describe the three methods for maintaining a sterile field with C-arm equipment.
    14. List the three cardinal rules of radiation protection as they apply to trauma.
    15. List three situations in which bedside radiography may be preferable to examination in the department. 
    16. State the purpose of gastric, nasoenteric, tracheal, and thoracic suction.
    17. List precautions to be taken when doing a bedside radiograph of a neonate and intensive care unit (ICU).
    18. List 3 types of special beds or mattresses that may be seen in special units and state precautions to be used in doing mobile radiography with each type.
    19. Define the term sterile corridor, and explain the significance of this concept to the radiographer.
    20. List and describe two types of central venous catheters.
    21. Identify the correct locations for the tips of the Swan-Ganz, Groshong, and PICC catheters.
    22. Demonstrate Portable and C-arm procedures in a surgical suite.
    23. Demonstrate how to operate within a sterile environment while completing a surgical exam. 

    Outline:
    1. Pelvis, Hips and SI Joints
      1. Pelvis
      2. Hip (non-trauma)
      3. Hip (trauma)
      4. Technique selection and radiation protection
      5. Image quality critique and analysis
    2. Basic Radiographic Positions of Ribs Boney Thorax
      1. Ribs unilateral and bilateral posterior anterior (PA) and anteroposterior (AP)
      2. Sternum
      3. Sternoclavicular joints
      4. Technique selection and radiation protection
      5. Image quality critique and analysis
    3. Basic Radiographic Positions of Vertebral Column
      1. Coccyx
      2. Sacrum
      3. Lumbosacral spine
      4. Thoracic spine
      5. Cervical spine
      6. Scoliosis series
      7. Technique selection and radiation protection
      8. Image quality critique and analysis
    4. Pediatric Radiography
      1. Introduction
        1. Image gently
        2. Pre-exam introductions
        3. Reporting child abuse (SNAT)
      2. Radiographic positions
        1. Chest
        2. Upper/lower extremities
        3. Pelvis/hips
        4. Abdomen
        5. Spine
        6. Special modality considerations
        7. Trauma SNAT series
      3. Image quality critique and analysis
        1. S/DI values – quantum mottle/blur/pixilation
        2. Collimation
        3. MaS
        4. Filtration
        5. Grid
        6. SID
    5. Trauma/Surgical Mobile Radiography
      1. Trauma and fracture terminology
      2. Positioning principles
        1. Two projection rule – 90 degrees
        2. Entire structure rule
      3. Mobile x-ray equipment
        1. Battery type mobile unit
        2. Mobile C-arm digital fluoro system
          1. Hip pinning
          2. Extremity pinning
          3. Spine AP and lateral projections
          4. Pacemaker and line placement
          5. Image orientation and sterile fields
          6. Vascular imaging considerations
      4. Radiation protection
        1. Three cardinal rules
        2. Exposure patterns for C-arm use
      5. Trauma and mobile positioning
        1. Chest
        2. Boney thorax
        3. Abdomen
        4. Upper/lower extremities
        5. C-spine
        6. Thoracic lumbar (T-L) spine
        7. Image quality critique and analysis
      6. Osseous System Pathology Special Considerations
        1. Age
        2. Disease


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 174LB - Radiographic Positioning II Lab

    0.75 Credits, 2.25 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 2.25 lab periods

    This is the lab portion of RAD 174 . Continuation of RAD 171 . Includes routine and special positioning of the pelvis, hips, SI joints, boney thorax, and vertebral column. Also includes pediatric radiography, trauma/surgical mobile radiography, and related osseous system pathology.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , RAD 173LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 174 , RAD 175LB , RAD 175 , RAD 176LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Adapt radiographic procedures based on special considerations, trauma, and age-specific groups.
    2. Demonstrate trauma and mobile procedures for upper and lower extremities, pelvis and thorax, cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine.
    3. Define the common types of surgical procedures using mobile/C-Arm imaging, to include maintaining a sterile field with the C-Arm type fluoroscopy units.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Perform basic and trauma projections, for the pelvis, and SI joint, total spine, thorax, surgical and portable images and procedures.
    2. Evaluate radiographs according to Bontrager evaluation criteria.
    3. Identify the need for grids and how it would affect the resulting radiograph.
    4. Discuss and identify distortion, elongation, grid cut off, contrast and density during image evaluation. 
    5. Identify joint classification.
    6. Define Image Gently/Wise and discuss the role of the pediatric technologist before, during, and after a radiographic procedure.
    7. Explain various immobilization devices to prevent motion during the exposure.
    8. Describe various radiation protective measures for minimizing radiation dose to the pediatric patient.
    9. Demonstrate routine/special positions used for the pediatric patient in the Radiology Department.
    10. Define the stages of growth and development.
    11. Explain the two positioning principles that must be observed during trauma radiography.
    12. Describe the two primary types of mobile radiographic units and their operating principles.
    13. Describe the three methods for maintaining a sterile field with C-arm equipment.
    14. List the three cardinal rules of radiation protection as they apply to trauma.
    15. List three situations in which bedside radiography may be preferable to examination in the department. 
    16. State the purpose of gastric, nasoenteric, tracheal, and thoracic suction.
    17. List precautions to be taken when doing a bedside radiograph of a neonate and intensive care unit (ICU).
    18. List 3 types of special beds or mattresses that may be seen in special units and state precautions to be used in doing mobile radiography with each type.
    19. Define the term sterile corridor, and explain the significance of this concept to the radiographer.
    20. List and describe two types of central venous catheters.
    21. Identify the correct locations for the tips of the Swan-Ganz, Groshong, and PICC catheters.
    22. Demonstrate Portable and C-arm procedures in a surgical suite.
    23. Demonstrate how to operate within a sterile environment while completing a surgical exam. 

    Outline:
    1. Pelvis, Hips and SI Joints
      1. Pelvis
      2. Hip (non-trauma)
      3. Hip (trauma)
      4. Technique selection and radiation protection
      5. Image quality critique and analysis
    2. Basic Radiographic Positions of Ribs Boney Thorax
      1. Ribs unilateral and bilateral posterior anterior (PA) and anteroposterior (AP)
      2. Sternum
      3. Sternoclavicular joints
      4. Technique selection and radiation protection
      5. Image quality critique and analysis
    3. Basic Radiographic Positions of Vertebral Column
      1. Coccyx
      2. Sacrum
      3. Lumbosacral spine
      4. Thoracic spine
      5. Cervical spine
      6. Scoliosis series
      7. Technique selection and radiation protection
      8. Image quality critique and analysis
    4. Pediatric Radiography
      1. Introduction
        1. Image gently
        2. Pre-exam introductions
        3. Reporting child abuse (SNAT)
      2. Radiographic positions
        1. Chest
        2. Upper/lower extremities
        3. Pelvis/hips
        4. Abdomen
        5. Spine
        6. Special modality considerations
        7. Trauma SNAT series
      3. Image quality critique and analysis
        1. S/DI values – quantum mottle/blur/pixilation
        2. Collimation
        3. MaS
        4. Filtration
        5. Grid
        6. SID
    5. Trauma/Surgical Mobile Radiography
      1. Trauma and fracture terminology
      2. Positioning principles
        1. Two projection rule – 90 degrees
        2. Entire structure rule
      3. Mobile x-ray equipment
        1. Battery type mobile unit
        2. Mobile C-arm digital fluoro system
          1. Hip pinning
          2. Extremity pinning
          3. Spine AP and lateral projections
          4. Pacemaker and line placement
          5. Image orientation and sterile fields
          6. Vascular imaging considerations
      4. Radiation protection
        1. Three cardinal rules
        2. Exposure patterns for C-arm use
      5. Trauma and mobile positioning
        1. Chest
        2. Boney thorax
        3. Abdomen
        4. Upper/lower extremities
        5. C-spine
        6. Thoracic lumbar (T-L) spine
      6. Image quality critique and analysis
    6. Osseous System Pathology Special Considerations
      1. Age
      2. Disease


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 175 - Medical Imaging Technology II

    3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 172 /RAD 172LB . Includes concepts of radiographic image quality, x-ray interactions with matter, formulation of x-ray techniques, automatic exposure control, and x-ray detection devices.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , RAD 173LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 174LB , RAD 174 , RAD 175LB , RAD 176LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Demonstrate the safe utilization of radiographic equipment while achieving optimum image quality.
    2. Describe the five interactions of x-rays with matter and identify the differences between coherent scatter, Compton scatter and the photoelectric effect.  
    3. Identify and describe computed radiography, scanned projection radiography, in direct and direct digital imaging systems.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe the conditions necessary for producing x-rays.
    2. Identify the properties and characteristics of x-rays.
    3. Identify the three factors which are responsible for the attenuation of the x-ray beam.
    4. Describe the interaction process for each of the following:
      1. Unmodified/Coherent
      2. Photoelectric effect
      3. Compton effect
      4. Pair production/Annihilation reaction
      5. Photodisintegration
    5. Identify the factors that affect Visibility of detail.
    6. Identify the geometric factors affecting image quality.
    7. Identify the subject factors that affect image quality.
    8. Identify the tools for producing high-quality images.
    9. Calculate how changes in principal factors affect image quality.
    10. Identify the factors that affect Spatial Resolution.
    11. Prepare a Technique Chart.
    12. Demonstrate the effects of exposure factors and focal spots size on the image.
    13. Describe the difference between phototimer and ion chamber AEC devices.
    14. Describe an Anatomically Programmed AEC system.
    15. Identify the location of phototimer and ion chamber receptors in relation the IR.
    16. Discuss the necessity for a back-up time and the 600 mAs safety override.
    17. Define the Roentgen, Rad, Rem, and the Curie and their equivalent SI units.
    18. Describe the radiation monitoring devices currently available.
    19. Describe how to Design a Safe Facility.
    20. Describe various digital radiography image receptor and detector systems.
    21. Explain the critical elements used in digital systems.
    22. Discuss inherent limitations in each type of system.
    23. Describe the process by which the digital radiography histogram is acquired and the display algorithm is applied to the collected data.
    24. Explain the causes of common digital artifacts.
    25. Demonstrate in the lab the proper utilization of a conventional mobile unit.
    26. Describe the characteristics and operating procedures for mobile units.
    27. Describe the technical factors utilized in mobile fluoroscopy.
    28. Describe and demonstrate the procedures necessary to perform mobile fluoroscopy safely to insure maximum protection for the patient and personnel.

    Outline:
    1. Concepts of Radiographic Image Quality
      1. Definitions
      2. Film factors
      3. Geometric factors
      4. Subject factors
      5. Tools for improved radiographic quality
    2. X-Ray Interactions with Matter
      1. Photoelectric absorption
      2. Coherent scatter
      3. Compton scatter
      4. Pair production
      5. Photodisintegration
    3. Formulation of X-Ray Techniques
      1. Variable kVp charts
      2. Fixed kVp charts
      3. High kVp charts
      4. X-ray generator accuracy
    4. Automatic Exposure Control
      1. Phototimer
      2. Ionization chambers
      3. Anatomically programmed radiography
    5. X-Ray Detection Devices
      1. Film badge (photographic)
      2. Thermoluminescence dosimetry
      3. OSL
      4. Geiger-Mueller counter


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 175LB - Medical Imaging Technology II Lab

    0.5 Credits, 1.5 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 1.5 lab periods

    This is the lab portion of RAD 175 . Continuation of RAD 172 /RAD 172LB . Includes concepts of radiographic image quality, x-ray interactions with matter, formulation of x-ray techniques, automatic exposure control, and x-ray detection devices.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , and RAD 173LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 174LB , RAD 174 , RAD 175 , RAD 176LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Construct a radiographic technique charts, describe the differences between a fixed kVp chart and a variable kVp chart, and identify the factors of x-ray generator accuracy. 
    2. Describe the components and operation of mobile radiographic and mobile fluroscopic equipment, and demonstrate proper patient and equipment operator safety and radiation protection practices required for use of these units

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe the conditions necessary for producing x-rays.
    2. Identify the properties and characteristics of x-rays.
    3. Identify the three factors which are responsible for the attenuation of the x-ray beam.
    4. Describe the interaction process for each of the following:
      1. Unmodified/Coherent
      2. Photoelectric effect
      3. Compton effect
      4. Pair production/Annihilation reaction
      5. Photodisintegration
    5. Identify the factors that affect Visibility of detail.
    6. Identify the geometric factors affecting image quality.
    7. Identify the subject factors that affect image quality.
    8. Identify the tools for producing high-quality images.
    9. Calculate how changes in principal factors affect image quality.
    10. Identify the factors that affect Spatial Resolution.
    11. Prepare a Technique Chart.
    12. Demonstrate the effects of exposure factors and focal spots size on the image.
    13. Describe the difference between phototimer and ion chamber AEC devices.
    14. Describe an Anatomically Programmed AEC system.
    15. Identify the location of phototimer and ion chamber receptors in relation the IR.
    16. Discuss the necessity for a back-up time and the 600 mAs safety override.
    17. Define the Roentgen, Rad, Rem, and the Curie and their equivalent SI units.
    18. Describe the radiation monitoring devices currently available.
    19. Describe how to Design a Safe Facility.
    20. Describe various digital radiography image receptor and detector systems.
    21. Explain the critical elements used in digital systems.
    22. Discuss inherent limitations in each type of system.
    23. Describe the process by which the digital radiography histogram is acquired and the display algorithm is applied to the collected data.
    24. Explain the causes of common digital artifacts.
    25. Demonstrate in the lab the proper utilization of a conventional mobile unit.
    26. Describe the characteristics and operating procedures for mobile units.
    27. Describe the technical factors utilized in mobile fluoroscopy.
    28. Describe and demonstrate the procedures necessary to perform mobile fluoroscopy safely to insure maximum protection for the patient and personnel.

    Outline:
    1. Concepts of Radiographic Image Quality
      1. Definitions
      2. Film factors
      3. Geometric factors
      4. Subject factors
      5. Tools for improved radiographic quality
    2. X-Ray Interactions with Matter
      1. Photoelectric absorption
      2. Coherent scatter
      3. Compton scatter
      4. Pair production
      5. Photodisintegration
    3. Formulation of X-Ray Techniques
      1. Variable kVp charts
      2. Fixed kVp charts
      3. High kVp charts
      4. X-ray generator accuracy
    4. Automatic Exposure Control
      1. Phototimer
      2. Ionization chambers
      3. Anatomically programmed radiography
    5. X-Ray Detection Devices
      1. Film badge (photographic)
      2. Thermoluminescence dosimetry
      3. OSL
      4. Geiger-Mueller counter


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 176LC - Clinical Education II

    6 Credits, 24 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 24 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 173LC . Includes routine and special radiographic procedures, trauma and mobile radiography, osseous pathology, and pediatric radiography.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , and RAD 173LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 174LB , RAD 174 , RAD 175LB , RAD 175  
    Information: Clinical Education Centers may require additional fees and a tuberculosis skin test. Student must be admitted to the RAD program before enrolling in this course. Competency-based assignments, concepts of patient-centered clinical practice and professional development shall be discussed, examined, performed and evaluated under the supervision of a certified Radiologic Technologist. The clinical practicum incorporates critical analysis, integration, synthesis and evaluation of concepts and theories in the performance of radiographic procedures.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Adapt procedures and demonstrate patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, disability, special needs, ethnicity, or culture.
    2. Demonstrate professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    3. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality, patient identification, pertinent pathology, and measures to improve unacceptable images.
    4. Complete a minimum of ten (10) competencies and five (5) random re-checks on completed competency.
    5. Complete the required medical hours.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Integrate the radiographer’s scope of practice and practice standards into clinical practice setting.
    2. Prepare the technologies and methodologies for the performance of radiologic procedures.
    3. Support patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, and disability, special needs, ethnicity or culture.
    4. Execute the imaging procedures under the appropriate level of supervision.
    5. Act consistently to maintain patient confidentiality standards.
    6. Demonstrate the proper and safe use of stationary, mobile, fluoroscopic, and medical imaging equipment. 
    7. Ensure that performance reflects professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    8. Report equipment malfunctions and assists in corrective actions when appropriate.
    9. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality and patient documentation, and demonstrate competence in determining measures to improve inadequate images. 
    10. Demonstrate the proper and safe utilization of general radiographic equipment.
    11. Demonstrate skills in assessment and evaluation of psychological and physical changes in the patient’s condition and carry out appropriate actions.
    12. Perform duties, which include radiography room cleanliness, and stocking supplies.
    13. Adapt procedures to meet age-specific, disease-specific and cultural needs of patients.  
    14. Respond appropriately to patient emergencies, and document care in the patient record. 
    15. Apply standard and transmission-based precautions, and apply the appropriate medical asepsis and sterile technique. 
    16. Demonstrate human relations’ skills when interacting with patients, peers, and supervisors in the clinical setting.
    17. Choose patient and family education strategies appropriate to the comprehension level of the patient/ family.
    18. Consult with the supervisor or qualified staff technologist or quality control technologist regarding the diagnostic quality of the completed examination.

    Outline:
    1. Routine and Special Radiographic Procedures
      1. Upper and lower extremity
      2. Shoulder
      3. Pelvis
      4. Bony thorax
      5. C-T-L spine, sacrum and coccyx
    2. Trauma and Mobile Radiography
      1. Special considerations
      2. Routine projections
      3. C-arm
    3. Osseous Pathology
      1. Special considerations
      2. Technical factors
    4. Pediatric Radiography
      1. Special considerations
      2. Routine


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2017/2018
  
  •  

    RAD 177LC - Clinical Education III

    4.5 Credits, 18 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 18 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 176LC . Includes routine and special radiographic procedures, mobile radiography, emergency department procedures, and observation and assisting in fluroscopic procedures.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 174LB , RAD 174 , RAD 175LB , RAD 175 , and RAD 176LC  
    Information: Clinical Education Centers may require additional fees and a tuberculosis skin test. Student must be admitted to the RAD program before enrolling in this course. Competency-based assignments, concepts of patient-centered clinical practice and professional development shall be discussed, examined, performed and evaluated under the supervision of a certified Radiologic Technologist. The clinical practicum incorporates critical analysis, integration, synthesis and evaluation of concepts and theories in the performance of radiographic procedures.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Adapt procedures and demonstrate patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, disability, special needs, ethnicity, or culture.
    2. Demonstrate professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    3. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality, patient identification, pertinent pathology, and measures to improve unacceptable images.
    4. Complete a minimum of ten (10) competencies and five (5) random re-checks on completed competency.
    5. Complete the required medical hours.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Integrate the radiographer’s scope of practice and practice standards into clinical practice setting.
    2. Prepare the technologies and methodologies for the performance of radiologic procedures.
    3. Support patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, and disability, special needs, ethnicity or culture.
    4. Execute the imaging procedures under the appropriate level of supervision.
    5. Act consistently to maintain patient confidentiality standards.
    6. Demonstrate the proper and safe use of stationary, mobile, fluoroscopic, and medical imaging equipment. 
    7. Ensure that performance reflects professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    8. Report equipment malfunctions and assists in corrective actions when appropriate.
    9. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality and patient documentation, and demonstrate competence in determining measures to improve inadequate images. 
    10. Demonstrate the proper and safe utilization of general radiographic equipment.
    11. Demonstrate skills in assessment and evaluation of psychological and physical changes in the patient’s condition and carry out appropriate actions.
    12. Perform duties, which include radiography room cleanliness, and stocking supplies.
    13. Adapt procedures to meet age-specific, disease-specific and cultural needs of patients.  
    14. Respond appropriately to patient emergencies, and document care in the patient record. 
    15. Apply standard and transmission-based precautions, and apply the appropriate medical asepsis and sterile technique. 
    16. Demonstrate human relations’ skills when interacting with patients, peers, and supervisors in the clinical setting.
    17. Choose patient and family education strategies appropriate to the comprehension level of the patient/ family.
    18. Consult with the supervisor or qualified staff technologist or quality control technologist regarding the diagnostic quality of the completed examination.

    Outline:
    1. Routine and Special Radiographic Procedures
      1. Upper extremity
      2. Lower extremity
      3. Shoulder
      4. Pelvis
      5. Bony thorax
      6. C-T-L spine, sacrum and coccyx
    2. Mobile Radiography
      1. Special considerations
      2. Routine projections
      3. C-arm
      4. Technical factors
    3. Fluoroscopy and Surgery Observation and Assisting
      1. Function of fluroscopic rooms
      2. GI and GU protocols, routine and special considerations (direct supervision)
      3. Radiologist protocols and radiation safety
    4. Emergency Department Procedures
      1. Trauma vs. routine
      2. Limited studies vs. routine protocol
      3. Patient assessment and special considerations


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2018/2019
  
  •  

    RAD 180 - Introduction to Radiation Biology

    1 Credits, 1 Contact Hours
    1 lecture period 0 lab periods

    An introduction to radiobiological concepts and principles. Includes history of radiobiology, fundamental radiation units, biologic and physical factors of cell and tissue radiosensitivity, and radiation induced malignancies.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 177LC  
    Corequisite(s): RAD 181 , RAD 182 , RAD 183LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Verbally provide a brief synopsis of the history of radiation biology, including a few epidemiologic case studies that have contributed to our knowledge of radiobiology.
    2. Discuss and mathematically convert conventional units of radiation to their system international counterparts.
    3. State the Laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau (biologic factors) and discuss the physical factors affecting cell and organ radiosensitivity.
    4. Identify cellular anatomy and specific cellular organelles as it related to cellular function and radiobiologic damage.
    5. Discuss local tissue effects as it relates to the eyes and skin.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Discuss the conventional and SI fundamental units of radiation measurement and mathematically calculate their conversion from one to another.
    2. Briefly identify the timeline for the history of Radiobiology from 1895 to present and discuss a few epidemiologic studies that have contributed to our understanding of radiobiology.
    3. List the three essential duties of a radiographer as it relates to radioprotection.
    4. Describe the differences in mitosis and meiosis for somatic and genetic cell duplication.
    5. Identify which subphase of mitosis and stage of interphase is the most radiosensitive for somatic cells.
    6. State the Laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau (biologic factors) as it relates to cell radiosensitivity.
    7. Briefly describe the physical factors that influence cell, tissue, and organ radiosensitivity.
    8. Identify cellular organelles present in the cytoplasm and discuss their function and relative radiosensitivites and/ or resistance.
    9. Explain the three basic categories of radiation hazards for whole body dose.
    10. List the function and percentages of each critical molecule in the body.
    11. Describe the difference in nitrogenous base pairs for RNA and DNA.
    12. State the protracted cataractogenesis threshold dose experienced by cyclotron physicists.
    13. State the SED and SED50 for the general population in SI units.

    Outline:
    1. Introduction, History and Categories of Biologic Effects
    2. Conventional and System International Radiation Units
    3. Cellular Anatomy;/Organelle Function
    4. Radiosensitive Phases of Mitosis and Meiosis
    5. Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau (Biological and Physical Factors)
    6. Local Tissue Effects (Cytogenetic Damage)
    7. Radiation Induced Malignancies/Life Span Shortening


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2017/2018
  
  •  

    RAD 181 - Radiographic Positioning III

    3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 174 . Includes radiographic positioning and fluroscopic procedures of the urinary system, pharmacodynamics of radiopaque contrast media, intravenous drug administration technique (venipuncture), the digestive system, the biliary system, and pathology.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 174LB , RAD 174 , and RAD 177LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 180 , RAD 181LB, RAD 182 , RAD 183LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Describe and demonstrate routine radiographic positions for the upper/lower gastrointestinal tract (GI), biliary, and genitourinary systems (GU).
    2. Define the role of the radiographer for fluoroscopic procedures, including digital and computerized  radiography set up and post processing of radiographic images.
    3. Identify steps taken to ensure patient safety during fluoroscopic procedures taking into consideration age, gender, and culture.
    4. Define key types of emergencies as it relates to contrast media such as: vasomotor, vasovagal, contrast media allergic reactions, and acute renal failure and identify the role of a radiographer in these emergencies. 
    5. Outline the steps of venipuncture and name the type, dosage, and route of administration for contrast media commonly used to gastrointestinal, biliary, and genitourinary examinations.
    6. Discuss the types of pathology as it relates to gastrointestinal, biliary, and genitourinary imaging. 
    7. Analyze and evaluate CR/DR images for quality and positioning accuracy.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe, demonstrate, identify, and critique images for anatomic location, function, anatomy and routine positions of the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and biliary systems.
    2. Manipulate x-ray equipment, set technical factors, and use accessory items in an efficient manner in order to achieve diagnostically acceptable images.
    3. Explain the room preparation and purpose of contrast media used in genitourinary procedures, gastrointestinal, and biliary procedures.
    4. Describe common pathologic disorders associated with the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and biliary systems.
    5. Differentiate between vasomotor, vasovagal, minor, moderate and severe allergic reactions and acute renal failure in regards to injected contrast media.
    6. Perform venipuncture using appropriate standard precautions and techniques in the IV Sim Lab.
    7. State the patient’s dietary preparations for the genitourinary, gastrointestinal and biliary procedures.
    8. Define and describe the four general classes of body habitus and its effect on positioning for the viscera.
    9. Identify anatomic structures on cross sectional images of the abdomen from T-12 thru L-4.
    10. Explain the vascular supply to and from the primary visceral structures using the branches of the abdominal aorta and IVC.
    11. Elaborate on the venous structures that contribute to the formation of the portal vein.
    12. Describe 10 functions and the anatomy on the visceral and dorsal sides of the liver.
    13. Successfully understand the medical terminology associated with the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and biliary systems provided in the syllabus.
    14. Describe the difference between the Modified Barium Video Swallow and Esophagography examinations.
    15. Identify the anatomy for the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the kidney and nephron.
    16. Demonstrate the proper procedure for an IV Drip Infusion Set up used for cystography.
    17. Select and identify primary venous structures for contrast media injection.
    18. Discuss the clinical indications for performing examinations for the IVU, Esophagography, UGI, Small Bowel, Barium Enema, and OR or Laparoscopic Cholangiography.
    19. Explain the contraindications for the use of barium and or iodinated contrast media.

    Outline:
    1. Urinary System
      1. Intravenous urograms
      2. Keys Terms/anatomy/pathology
      3. Introduction to sectional anatomy
      4. Cystograms
      5. Voiding cystourethragrams
      6. Retrograde urogram
      7. Image critique
    2. Pharmacodynamics of Radiopaque Contrast Media (ROCM)
      1. Key terms
      2. Iodinated vs. non-iodinated
      3. Diagnostic characteristics
      4. Routes and types of ROCM
      5. Screening and informed consent
      6. General adverse reactions
      7. Medical emergencies as it relates to the use of contrast media
      8. Documentation
    3. Intravenous (IV) Drug Administration Technique (Venipuncture)
      1. Key terms/anatomy
      2. I.V. equipment
      3. Starting I.V. lines for ROCM administration
      4. Standard precautions
      5. Documentation
    4. Digestive System
      1. Key terms/anatomy/pathology
      2. Positioning of the upper/lower gastrointestinal tract
      3. Biphasic vs. single-phase exams
      4. Patient education and preparation
      5. Routine vs. special radiographic projections
      6. Equipment utilization
      7. Radiation safety
      8. Types of contrast media
      9. Image critique
    5. Biliary System
      1. Key terms/anatomy/pathology
      2. Operative cholangiogram/laparoscopic cholangiogram
      3. T-Tube cholangiogram
      4. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
      5. Contrast media routes and types
      6. Patient prep and informed consent
      7. Image critique
    6. Pathology


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2017/2018
  
  •  

    RAD 182 - Medical Imaging Technology III

    3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 175 . Includes image intensification, digital fluoroscopy, special imaging procedures, quality control, other imaging modalities, and professional roles and behaviors.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 175LB , RAD 175 , and RAD 177LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 180 , RAD 181 , RAD 181LB, RAD 183LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.



    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Demonstrate proper operation of conventional and digital radiographic/fluoroscopic systems and correlated radiation safety and protection requirements. 
    2. Describe the factors to ensure quality control in x-ray equipment and imaging systems.  
    3. Describe the function and purpose of the following advanced modalities: Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Myelography, Arthrography, Angiography, Radiation Therapy, Nuclear Medicine, Sonography, Mammography, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Bone Densitometry (DEXA), and discuss their associated healthcare costs.  
    4. Discuss and define pertinent laws and the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) rules and code or ethics.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe the evolution of medical ethics
    2. Describe the sources of personal values
    3. List the core values necessary in the health care environment
    4. Differentiate between the ARRT Code and Rules of Ethics
    5. Discuss the three aspects of patient consent
    6. List the sources of law
    7. Differentiate between civil and criminal law
    8. Define relevant legal doctrines
    9. Calculate an image intensifier’s brightness gain, and magnification factor
    10. Identify the factors that control the (1) brightness, (2) minification, and (3) magnification of the image.
    11. Describe the various types and applications of conventional recording devices.
    12. Identify and describe digital fluoroscopy and the differences between digital and analog fluoroscopy
    13. List the regulations for tube filtration, Fluoro timer, Source-skin distance, and lead equivalents
    14. Describe the parts of the digital imaging system and explain their functions
    15. Discuss the different types of digital fluoro receptors
    16. Describe the properties of a charge-couple device
    17. Understand the advantages of using a flat panel image receptor
    18. Compute pixel size and matrix size in digital fluoroscopy
    19. Describe the ways to test x-ray equipment for efficacy
    20. Describe image receptor artifacts and how they appear on a radiograph
    21. Describe software artifacts and how they appear on a radiograph
    22. Describe the difference between Interpolation and flat fielding
    23. Explain the different types of compression and when to use each one.
    24. Discuss the difference between lossy and lossless
    25. Describe the Purpose, Indications/Contraindications, Supplies, Type of contrast and amount, and Procedural Considerations for each of the following procedures     
      1. Arthrography
      2. Myelography
      3. Lumbar Puncture
      4. Hystersalpingiogram

    26. List the basic principles / rules of sterile technique as it pertains to gowning, gloving, and maintaining a sterile field.

    27. Describe the basic principles and medical application for each of the following medical imaging modalities, to include safety, patient prep and discharge instructions:

    1. Nuclear Medicine
    2. Ultrasound
    3. CT Scanning
    4. MRI
    5. PET Scanning
    6. Bone Densitometry ( DEXA )
    7. Mammography
    8. Cath Lab
    9. Digital Subtraction Angiography/Specials

    Outline:
    1. Image Intensification
      1. Fundamental principles
      2. System components
      3. Application and operation
      4. Recording devices
    2. Digital Fluoroscopy
      1. Types of generators
      2. Radiographic technical factors
      3. Pulse progressive mode
    3. Special Imaging Procedures
      1. Arthrography
      2. Myelography
      3. Hysterosalpingography
      4. Biopsy
    4. Quality Control
      1. Equipment components
      2. Image quality control and artifacts
    5. Other Imaging Modalities
      1. Computed tomography (CT) scanning
      2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
      3. Nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography (PET)
      4. Ultrasound
      5. Angiographic and interventional procedures
      6. Radiation therapy
    6. Professional Roles and Behaviors
      1. Patient rights’
      2. Legal considerations
      3. Standards of ethics


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2017/2018

  
  •  

    RAD 183LC - Clinical Education IV

    5 Credits, 20 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 20 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 177LC . Includes diagnostic and fluoroscopic equipment and procedures, contrast media policies and protocols, intravenous administration, and routine and special examinations.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 177LC  
    Corequisite(s): RAD 180 , RAD 181 , RAD 181LB, RAD 182  
    Information: Clinical Education Centers may require additional fees and a tuberculosis skin test. Student must be admitted to RAD program before enrolling in this course. Competency-based assignments, concepts of patient-centered clinical practice and professional development shall be discussed, examined, performed and evaluated under the supervision of a certified Radiologic Technologist. The clinical practicum incorporates critical analysis, integration, synthesis and evaluation of concepts and theories in the performance of radiographic procedures.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Adapt procedures and demonstrate patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, disability, special needs, ethnicity, or culture. 
    2. Demonstrate professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible. 
    3. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality, patient identification, pertinent pathology, and measures to improve unacceptable images. 
    4. Complete a minimum of ten (10) competencies and five (5) random re-checks on completed competency. 
    5. Complete the required clinical hours.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Integrate the radiographer’s scope of practice and practice standards into clinical practice setting.
    2. Prepare the technologies and methodologies for the performance of radiologic procedures.
    3. Support patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, and disability, special needs, ethnicity or culture.
    4. Execute the imaging procedures under the appropriate level of supervision.
    5. Act consistently to maintain patient confidentiality standards.
    6. Demonstrate the proper and safe use of stationary, mobile, fluoroscopic, and medical imaging equipment. 
    7. Ensure that performance reflects professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    8. Report equipment malfunctions and assists in corrective actions when appropriate.
    9. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality and patient documentation, and demonstrate competence in determining measures to improve inadequate images. 
    10. Demonstrate the proper and safe utilization of general radiographic equipment.
    11. Demonstrate skills in assessment and evaluation of psychological and physical changes in the patient’s condition and carry out appropriate actions.
    12. Perform duties, which include radiography room cleanliness, and stocking supplies.
    13. Adapt procedures to meet age-specific, disease-specific and cultural needs of patients.  
    14. Respond appropriately to patient emergencies, and document care in the patient record. 
    15. Apply standard and transmission-based precautions, and apply the appropriate medical asepsis and sterile technique. 
    16. Demonstrate human relations’ skills when interacting with patients, peers, and supervisors in the clinical setting.
    17. Choose patient and family education strategies appropriate to the comprehension level of the patient/ family.
    18. Consult with the supervisor or qualified staff technologist or quality control technologist regarding the diagnostic quality of the completed examination.

    Outline:
    1. Diagnostic and Fluoroscopic Equipment and Procedures
    2. Contrast Media Policies and Protocols
    3. Intravenous (I.V.) Administration
    4. Routine and Special Examinations
      1. Gastrointestinal (GI) system
      2. Genitourinary (GU) system


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2018/2019
  
  •  

    RAD 184 - Radiographic Positioning IV

    3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
    3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 181 . Includes positioning and anatomy of the skull and facial bones, acute medical emergencies, infection control and preventing transmissible diseases, review of vital signs, and the second part of radiation biology.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 180 , RAD 181 , RAD 182 , RAD 183LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 184LB , RAD 185 , RAD 186LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Explain the Acute Radiation Syndrome and how it has contributed to our understanding of whole body radiation expose experienced by the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 
    2. Define the Target Cell Theory and illustrate ionizing effect of High and Low LET radiation on the human cell.
    3. Outline the timeframe and primary fetal effects of radiation for all three stages of gestation.
    4. Discuss the effects of radiation on the spermatoagonia and oogonia and its relative genetic impact.
    5. Using an illustration of the double helix of DNA, discuss the five main effects of radiation on the nucleotide base pairs and which one is associated with a genetic mutation.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe, demonstrate, identify, and critique images for anatomic location, function, anatomy, and routine positions for the skull and cranial bones, facial bones and paranasal sinuses.
    2. State four reasons for learning good patient assessment skills.
    3. Demonstrate how to take a history appropriate to a specific procedure using the informed inquiry format.
    4. State the normal values for temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration for an adult and child.
    5. List the emergency actions a radiographer would take for spinal/head injuries, trauma patients, shock, and various medical emergencies.
    6. Discuss aseptic techniques and standard precautions for the patients and technologists safety.
    7. Discuss ARS including the prodromal, latent, and manifest periods and the hematologic, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system syndromes.
    8. Analyze stochastic and non-stochastic effects with regards to LNT and LT dose response curves.
    9. Describe the indirect and direct target cell theories for low and High LET.
    10. Using the Indirect Target Cell Theory describe chemically, the production of free radical formation.
    11. Using a skull phantom, identify the cranial topography and anatomic landmarks used in positioning.
    12. Using a skull phantom, identify the facial topography and anatomic landmarks used in positioning.
    13. Manipulate x-ray equipment, set technical factors, and use accessory items in an efficient manner in order to achieve diagnostically acceptable images.
    14. Describe the instructions for a patient undergoing any skull imaging procedure.
    15. Successfully understand the medical terminology associated with physical assessment and dealing with acute situations as provided in the syllabus.
    16. List the six factors involved in the cycle of infection.
    17. List the classifications of microorganisms, compare their physical structures and give examples of each.
    18. Define virulence factors and explain how these factors affect the differences between pathogenic organisms and normal flora.
    19. Name the agent and state the dilution used for disinfecting radiographic equipment, as recommended by the CDC.
    20. Successfully prepare a PowerPoint on a communicable disease and showcase the cycle of infection using the elements of the infectious process.

    Outline:
    1. Positioning and Anatomy of the Skull and Facial Bones 
    2. Dealing with Acute Medical Emergencies
    3. Infection Control and Preventing Transmissible Disease 
    4. Review of Vital Signs
    5. Second Part of Radiation Biology
      1. Dose response relationships
      2. Cell survival and recovery
      3. Acute radiation syndrome
      4. Embryonic and fetal effects
      5. Genetic impact (goals of gonadal shielding, GSD)


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 184LB - Radiographic Positioning IV Lab

    0.5 Credits, 1.5 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 1.5 lab periods

    This is the lab portion of RAD 184 . Continuation of RAD 181 . Includes positioning and anatomy of the skull and facial bones, acute medical emergencies, infection control and preventing transmissible diseases, review of vital signs, and the second part of radiation biology.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 180 , RAD 181 , RAD 182 , and RAD 183LC  
    Corequisite(s): RAD 184 , RAD 185 , RAD 186LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Demonstrate, produce, and critique the routine positions for the cranial and facial bones using the energized laboratory equipment. 
    2. Analyze and apply physics principles to completed images produced in the laboratory using CR/DR production.
    3. List the emergency actions a radiographer would take for spinal/head injuries, trauma patients, shock, and various medical emergencies.
    4. Discuss aseptic techniques and standard precautions for the patients and technologists safety.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Describe, demonstrate, identify, and critique images for anatomic location, function, anatomy, and routine positions for the skull and cranial bones, facial bones and paranasal sinuses.
    2. State four reasons for learning good patient assessment skills.
    3. Demonstrate how to take a history appropriate to a specific procedure using the informed inquiry format.
    4. State the normal values for temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration for an adult and child.
    5. List the emergency actions a radiographer would take for spinal/head injuries, trauma patients, shock, and various medical emergencies.
    6. Discuss aseptic techniques and standard precautions for the patients and technologists safety.
    7. Discuss ARS including the prodromal, latent, and manifest periods and the hematologic, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system syndromes.
    8. Analyze stochastic and non-stochastic effects with regards to LNT and LT dose response curves.
    9. Describe the indirect and direct target cell theories for low and High LET .
    10. Using the Indirect Target Cell Theory describe chemically, the production of free radical formation.
    11. Using a skull phantom, identify the cranial topography and anatomic landmarks used in positioning.
    12. Using a skull phantom, identify the facial topography and anatomic landmarks used in positioning.
    13. Manipulate x-ray equipment, set technical factors, and use accessory items in an efficient manner in order to achieve diagnostically acceptable images.
    14. Describe the instructions for a patient undergoing any skull imaging procedure.
    15. Successfully understand the medical terminology associated with physical assessment and dealing with acute situations as provided in the syllabus.
    16. List the six factors involved in the cycle of infection.
    17. List the classifications of microorganisms, compare their physical structures and give examples of each.
    18. Define virulence factors and explain how these factors affect the differences between pathogenic organisms and normal flora.
    19. Name the agent and state the dilution used for disinfecting radiographic equipment, as recommended by the CDC.
    20. Successfully prepare a PowerPoint on a communicable disease and showcase the cycle of infection using the elements of the infectious process.

    Outline:
    1. Positioning and Anatomy of the Skull and Facial Bones 
    2. Dealing with Acute Medical Emergencies
    3. Infection Control and Preventing Transmissible Disease 
    4. Review of Vital Signs
    5. Second Part of Radiation Biology
      1. Dose response relationships
      2. Cell survival and recovery
      3. Acute radiation syndrome
      4. Embryonic and fetal effects
      5. Genetic impact (goals of gonadal shielding, GSD)


    Effective Term:
    Spring 2020
  
  •  

    RAD 185 - Clinical Seminar

    2.5 Credits, 2.5 Contact Hours
    2.5 lecture periods 0 lab periods

    This is a capstone course. Includes review of radiographic procedures and exams, image acquisition and evaluation, patient care, equipment operation/maintenance/quality control, radiation protection and safety, and completion of registry mock exams.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 180 , RAD 181 , and RAD 183LC .
    Corequisite(s): RAD 184 , RAD 184LB , RAD 186LC  
    Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course. This is a capstone course which includes review of program curriculum and instruction in applying to the American Registry of Radiologic Technology (AART) and the Medical Radiologic Technology Board of Examiners (MRTBE). The course includes review sessions, written mock registry and multiple computerized exams.


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Demonstrate proper operation of conventional and digital radiographic/fluroscopic systems and correlate radiation safety and protection requirements.
    2. Discuss and define pertinent laws and the ARRT rules and code of ethics.
    3. Evaluate images for accurate positioning, centering, appropriate anatomy, pertinent pathology and image quality as it is applied to digital and computerized systems. 
    4. Define and calculate mathematical formulas for image production, and laws of physics, and image acquisition. 
    5. Define patient care assessment and medical emergencies best practices. 
    6. Define major components and operation of computerized and digital radiographic systems. 
    7. Calculate grid ratio, grid frequency, contrast improvement factors, bucky factor, and sensitivity.
    8. Define radiation quantity, intensity, quality, and penetration as it relates to the x-ray beam.
    9. Discuss the features of picture archiving and communication systems (PAC’S) used in hospital settings.
    10. Evaluate the radiosensitivity of tissues and organs and describe the biologic factors affecting radiation response.

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Define best practices for pediatric and geriatric imaging. 
    2. Discuss and define pertinent laws and the ARRT rules and code of ethics.
    3. Evaluate images for accurate positioning, centering, appropriate anatomy, pertinent. pathology and image quality as it is applied to digital and computerized systems. 
    4. Define and calculate mathematical formulas for image production, and laws of physics, and image acquisition. 
    5. Define patient care assessment and medical emergencies best practices. 
    6. Define major components and operation of computerized and digital radiographic systems. 
    7. Calculate grid ratio, grid frequency, contrast improvement factors, bucky factor, and sensitivity.
    8. Define radiation quantity, intensity, quality, and penetration as it relates to the x-ray beam.
    9. Discuss the features of picture archiving and communication systems (PAC’S) used in hospital settings.
    10. Evaluate the radiosensitivity of tissues and organs and describe the biologic factors affecting radiation response.

    Outline:
    1. Review of Radiographic Procedures and Exams
      1. Axial and appendicular positions
      2. Pediatric imaging
      3. Trauma
      4. C-Arm mobile
      5. Surgery
      6. Gastrointestinal (GI), and genitourinary (GU) exams and positions
      7. Image critique and identification of pertinent pathology
    2. Review of Image Acquisition and Evaluation
      1. Radiologic physics
      2. X-ray beam
      3. Radiographic image analysis
      4. Radiation protection and safety
      5. Special imaging modalities
      6. Computerized radiography (CR) versus direct image (DR) image acquisition and evaluation
    3. Review of Patient Care
      1. Age specific criteria
      2. Special considerations
      3. Medical emergencies
      4. Patient rights and legal considerations
    4. Review Equipment Operation/Maintenance/Quality Control
      1. Proper operation of X-ray console/generator/x-ray tube/and related components
      2. C-Arm and portable
      3. Intensifiers
      4. Computerized readers (CR)
    5. Review Radiation Protection and Safety
      1. Cardinal rules
      2. Lead shields and collimation
      3. Pregnancy policies
      4. Direct radiography (DR) and dose index (DI) value
      5. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
    6. Complete Registry Mock Exams
      1. Medical imaging student learning outcomes (SLO) test
      2. Written mock exam
      3. Corectec computer exams 1-4


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2017/2018
  
  •  

    RAD 186LC - Clinical Education V

    6 Credits, 24 Contact Hours
    0 lecture periods 24 lab periods

    Continuation of RAD 183LC . Includes skull and facial bones radiographic procedures, advanced modality rotations, and image critique and evaluation.

    Prerequisite(s): RAD 180 , RAD 181 , RAD 182 , and RAD 183LC  
    Corequisite(s): RAD 184 , RAD 184LB , RAD 185  
    Information: Clinical Education Centers may require additional fees and a tuberculosis skin test. Student must be admitted to the RAD program before enrolling in this course. Competency-based assignments, concepts of patient-centered clinical practice and professional development shall be discussed, examined, performed and evaluated under the supervision of a certified Radiologic Technologist. The clinical practicum incorporated critical analysis, integration, synthesis and evaluation of concepts and theories in the performance of radiographic procedures


    Course Learning Outcomes
    1. Adapt procedures and demonstrate patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of   age, gender, disability, special needs, ethnicity, or culture.
    2. Demonstrate professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible. 
    3. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality, patient identification, pertinent pathology, and measures to improve unacceptable images. 
    4. Complete outstanding mandatory and elective competency exams to comply with Competency Exam Policy. 
    5. Complete the required clinical hours in accordance with Medical Radiologic Technology Board of Examiners (MRTBE) policy. 

    Performance Objectives:
    1. Integrate the radiographer’s scope of practice and practice standards into clinical practice setting.
    2. Prepare the technologies and methodologies for the performance of radiologic procedures.
    3. Support patient centered clinically effective service for all patients regardless of age, gender, and disability, special needs, ethnicity or culture.
    4. Execute the imaging procedures under the appropriate level of supervision.
    5. Act consistently to maintain patient confidentiality standards.
    6. Demonstrate the proper and safe use of stationary, mobile, fluoroscopic, and medical imaging equipment. 
    7. Ensure that performance reflects professional competence in the selection of technical factors to produce quality diagnostic images with lowest radiation exposure possible.
    8. Report equipment malfunctions and assists in corrective actions when appropriate.
    9. Critique images for appropriate clinical information, image quality and patient documentation, and demonstrate competence in determining measures to improve inadequate images. 
    10. Demonstrate the proper and safe utilization of general radiographic equipment.
    11. Demonstrate skills in assessment and evaluation of psychological and physical changes in the patient’s condition and carry out appropriate actions.
    12. Perform duties, which include radiography room cleanliness, and stocking supplies.
    13. Adapt procedures to meet age-specific, disease-specific and cultural needs of patients.  
    14. Respond appropriately to patient emergencies, and document care in the patient record. 
    15. Apply standard and transmission-based precautions, and apply the appropriate medical asepsis and sterile technique. 
    16. Demonstrate human relations’ skills when interacting with patients, peers, and supervisors in the clinical setting.
    17. Choose patient and family education strategies appropriate to the comprehension level of the patient/ family.
    18. Consult with the supervisor or qualified staff technologist or quality control technologist regarding the diagnostic quality of the completed examination.

    Outline:
    1. Skull and Facial Bones
    2. Advanced Modality Rotations
      1. Computerized tomography (CT)
      2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
      3. Ultrasound (US) radiation therapy
      4. Nuclear medicine
      5. Special procedures
    3. Image Critique and Evaluation


    Effective Term:
    Full Academic Year 2017/2018