Jun 22, 2024  
2022-2023 College Catalog 
2022-2023 College Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

MLT 240IN - Urinalysis and Body Fluids

3 Credits, 5 Contact Hours
2 lecture periods 3 lab periods

Introduction to the fundamental clinical lab techniques of urine and body fluids. Includes collection, physical and chemical examination, microscopic examination, body fIuids, and individual fluids.

Prerequisite(s): With a grade of B or better: BIO 205IN , and MAT 151  or assessment into MAT 189 .
Information: Students must be admitted to the Medical Laboratory Technician program or obtain consent of instructor before enrolling in this course. IN is the integrated version of the course with the lecture and lab taught simultaneously.
  button image Prior Learning and link to PLA webpage

Course Learning Outcomes
1.   List the normal and abnormal constituents/composition and function of urine and selected body fluids, and   evaluate their clinical significance. 
2.   Discuss evaluation and interpretation of test outcomes and correlate test results with patient condition(s). 

3.   Use the examination of samples to determine the presence of normal and abnormal   constituents/composition of urine and selected body fluids, and evaluate their clinical significance. 
4.   Assess samples for proper collection and perform analysis of urine, fecal, and body fluid samples, including    use and calculations for hemocytometer counting chamber.
5.   Evaluate and interpret laboratory test outcomes and correlate test results with patient condition(s). 
6.   Improve critical thinking and organizational skills by attending class, completing assignments, and participating in problem solving discussions.

  1. Urine Collection Methods and Rejection Criteria for Each
    1. Random
    2. Timed
    3. Clean catch
    4. Midstream
    5. Catheterization
    6. Suprapubic aspirate
  2. Anatomical Areas of the Kidney and the Physiologic Function of Each 
  3. Appropriate Specimen Handling
    1. Preservatives for timed urine specimens
    2. Chemical changes preservatives may cause
    3. Procedures for obtaining optimal results
      1. Renal disease
      2. Glucose tolerance
      3. Pregnancy test
      4. Quantitative creatinine or urea
      5. Fecal analysis
  4. Urinalysis Results
    1. Microscopic components of normal and abnormal urine samples
    2. Significance of each
  5. Diagnostic Testing of Other Body Fluids
    1. Normal presentation
    2. Indications for collection
    3. Collection methods
    4. Testing methods
    5. Interpretation of results
    6. Significance in diagnosis of disease states
    7. Body fluids
      1. Cerebrospinal
      2. Synovial
      3. Pleural
      4. Pericardial
      5. Peritoneal
      6. Amniotic
      7. Seminal
      8. Vaginal
      9. Gastric
      10. Saliva
  6. Urine Collection
    1. Specimen methods of collection
      1. Collection and testing random urine specimen
      2. Collection and testing midstream clean catch specimen
      3. 24-Hour (timed) specimen collection procedure
      4. Clean catch specimen collection: male/female
    2. Specimen rejection
      1. Contaminated specimens
      2. Mislabeled
      3. Nonmatching requisition forms
      4. Unpreserved
      5. Improperly transported
  7. Collection and Use of Specimens with Appropriate Preservatives
    1. Advantages and disadvantages
      1. Refrigerated specimen
      2. Sodium fluoride
      3. Light gray C&S tube
      4. Yellow UA plus tube
    2. Physical and chemical changes in urine specimen
      1. Unrefrigerated urine
      2. Unpreserved urine
      3. Effects of bacterial growth on color, clarity, and chemistry results
  8. Calculations Using Results Obtained from Testing
    1. Glomerular filtration rate
    2. Creatinine clearance
    3. Osmotic gap
    4. Hemocytometer (body fluids)
  9. Physical and Chemical Examination of Urine
    1. Evaluation of color and clarity on urine specimens
    2. Urine concentration
      1. Osmolality (osmometer)
      2. Specific gravity (refractometer)
      3. Ionic strength (reagent dipstick)
    3. Reagent dipstick chemistry analysis of urine
      1. pH
      2. Protein
      3. Glucose
      4. Bilirubin
      5. Ketones
      6. Nitrite
      7. Blood
      8. Leukocytes
      9. Urobilinogen
      10. Specific gravity
      11. Ascorbic acid
    4. Sources of error
      1. Proper reagent dipstick technique
      2. Adulterated specimens
      3. Interfering substances
      4. Confirmatory tests
        1. Clinitest
        2. Ictotest
        3. Refractometer
      5. Correlating chemistry and microscopic results
    5. Microscopic examination of urine
      1. Standardized microscopic examination
        1. KOVA standard urinalysis system
        2. Non-standard conical tube system
      2. Formed elements in urine sediment
        1. Red blood cells
        2. White blood cells
        3. Renal tubular epithelial cells
        4. Transitional epithelial cells
        5. Casts
        6. Crystals
        7. Bacteria
        8. Sperm
        9. Mucous
        10. Artifacts
        11. Oval fat bodies
        12. Eosinophils
  10. Gross Evaluation Including Color, Clarity and Rejection Criteria on Body Fluids
    1. Synovial
    2. Pleural
    3. Pericardial
    4. Peritoneal
    5. Amniotic
    6. Seminal
    7. Vaginal
    8. Gastric
  11. Calculation of Number of Cells in a Variety of Body Fluids Using Dilution Factors and Hemocytometer Counts 
    1. Origin
    2. Indications for collection
    3. Procedures for laboratory evaluation
    4. Interpretation and diagnosis
  12. Cell Differentiations, Morphology Evaluation, Analyte Quantitation, Pregnancy or Special Testing on  a Variety of Body Fluids