Jan 21, 2022  
2021-2022 College Catalog 
2021-2022 College Catalog
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RAD 174 - Radiographic Positioning II

3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

Continuation of RAD 171 . Includes routine and special positioning of the pelvis, hips, SI joints, boney thorax, and vertebral column. Also includes pediatric radiography, trauma/surgical mobile radiography, and related osseous system pathology.

Prerequisite(s): RAD 171 , RAD 171LB , RAD 172 , RAD 172LB , RAD 173LC .
Corequisite(s): RAD 174LB , RAD 175LB , RAD 175 , RAD 176LC  
Information: Consent of program director is required before enrolling in this course.

Course Learning Outcomes
  1. Demonstrate routine and special radiographic positions for the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx, spine, pelvis, hips and boney thorax, on a person or phantom in a laboratory setting.
  2. Evaluate images for positioning, centering, radiation safety, pertinent pathology, appropriate anatomy, and image quality as it is applied to digital and computerized systems.
  3. Define the common types of surgical procedures using mobile/C-Arm imaging, to include maintaining a sterile field with the C-Arm type fluoroscopy units.  

Performance Objectives:
  1. Perform basic and trauma projections, for the pelvis, and SI joint, total spine, thorax, surgical and portable images and procedures.
  2. Evaluate radiographs according to Bontrager evaluation criteria.
  3. Identify the need for grids and how it would affect the resulting radiograph.
  4. Discuss and identify distortion, elongation, grid cut off, contrast and density during image evaluation. 
  5. Identify joint classification.
  6. Define Image Gently/Wise and discuss the role of the pediatric technologist before, during, and after a radiographic procedure.
  7. Explain various immobilization devices to prevent motion during the exposure.
  8. Describe various radiation protective measures for minimizing radiation dose to the pediatric patient.
  9. Demonstrate routine/special positions used for the pediatric patient in the Radiology Department.
  10. Define the stages of growth and development.
  11. Explain the two positioning principles that must be observed during trauma radiography.
  12. Describe the two primary types of mobile radiographic units and their operating principles.
  13. Describe the three methods for maintaining a sterile field with C-arm equipment.
  14. List the three cardinal rules of radiation protection as they apply to trauma.
  15. List three situations in which bedside radiography may be preferable to examination in the department. 
  16. State the purpose of gastric, nasoenteric, tracheal, and thoracic suction.
  17. List precautions to be taken when doing a bedside radiograph of a neonate and intensive care unit (ICU).
  18. List 3 types of special beds or mattresses that may be seen in special units and state precautions to be used in doing mobile radiography with each type.
  19. Define the term sterile corridor, and explain the significance of this concept to the radiographer.
  20. List and describe two types of central venous catheters.
  21. Identify the correct locations for the tips of the Swan-Ganz, Groshong, and PICC catheters.
  22. Demonstrate Portable and C-arm procedures in a surgical suite.
  23. Demonstrate how to operate within a sterile environment while completing a surgical exam. 

  1. Pelvis, Hips and SI Joints
    1. Pelvis
    2. Hip (non-trauma)
    3. Hip (trauma)
    4. Technique selection and radiation protection
    5. Image quality critique and analysis
  2. Basic Radiographic Positions of Ribs Boney Thorax
    1. Ribs unilateral and bilateral posterior anterior (PA) and anteroposterior (AP)
    2. Sternum
    3. Sternoclavicular joints
    4. Technique selection and radiation protection
    5. Image quality critique and analysis
  3. Basic Radiographic Positions of Vertebral Column
    1. Coccyx
    2. Sacrum
    3. Lumbosacral spine
    4. Thoracic spine
    5. Cervical spine
    6. Scoliosis series
    7. Technique selection and radiation protection
    8. Image quality critique and analysis
  4. Pediatric Radiography
    1. Introduction
      1. Image gently
      2. Pre-exam introductions
      3. Reporting child abuse (SNAT)
    2. Radiographic positions
      1. Chest
      2. Upper/lower extremities
      3. Pelvis/hips
      4. Abdomen
      5. Spine
      6. Special modality considerations
      7. Trauma SNAT series
    3. Image quality critique and analysis
      1. S/DI values – quantum mottle/blur/pixilation
      2. Collimation
      3. MaS
      4. Filtration
      5. Grid
      6. SID
  5. Trauma/Surgical Mobile Radiography
    1. Trauma and fracture terminology
    2. Positioning principles
      1. Two projection rule – 90 degrees
      2. Entire structure rule
    3. Mobile x-ray equipment
      1. Battery type mobile unit
      2. Mobile C-arm digital fluoro system
        1. Hip pinning
        2. Extremity pinning
        3. Spine AP and lateral projections
        4. Pacemaker and line placement
        5. Image orientation and sterile fields
        6. Vascular imaging considerations
    4. Radiation protection
      1. Three cardinal rules
      2. Exposure patterns for C-arm use
    5. Trauma and mobile positioning
      1. Chest
      2. Boney thorax
      3. Abdomen
      4. Upper/lower extremities
      5. C-spine
      6. Thoracic lumbar (T-L) spine
      7. Image quality critique and analysis
    6. Osseous System Pathology Special Considerations
      1. Age
      2. Disease

Effective Term:
Spring 2020

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