May 28, 2024  
2022-2023 College Catalog 
2022-2023 College Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

TMA 215 - Introduction to Pathology for Massage and Bodywork

3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

Introduces the student to basic disease processes and common pathologies associated with organ systems and provides an overview of pathology pertinent to massage therapy and bodywork. Includes cautions, contraindications and adaptive measures as applied to common pathologies of organ systems. Also includes the potential interactions between bodywork and medications.

Prerequisite(s): BIO 160IN  and TMA 101 .

Course Learning Outcomes
  1. Apply concepts of massage therapy modalities and the anatomical relationships to these modalities.

Performance Objectives:
  1. Describe the basic disease processes including inflammation, cell injury and death, cellular adaptation and disturbances of growth.
  2. Describe immune, infective, and environmental factors in disease.
  3. Identify and describe common pathologies of organ systems pertinent to massage and therapy
    and bodywork.    
  4. Identify and discuss the concepts of cautions, contraindications and adaptive measures as applied to common pathologies in massage and bodywork. 
  5. Describe cautions, contraindications and adaptive measures in massage and bodywork as applied to common pathologies in massage and bodywork. 
  6. Discuss potential interactions between bodywork and medications, and the application of appropriate cautions, contraindications and adaptive measures. 

  1. Basic Disease Processes
    1. Cell injury and death
    2. Cellular adaptation
    3. Inflammation
    4. Repair and regeneration
    5. Disturbances of growth
  2. Immune, Infective, and Environmental Factors in Disease
    1. Immune
      1. Inadequate immune responses
      2. Excessive immune responses
      3. Inappropriate immune responses
    2. Infection
      1. Bacterial
      2. Fungal
      3. Viral
      4. Protozoan
    3. Environmental factors
      1. Mechanical trauma
      2. Temperature extremes
      3. Irradiation       
      4. Electrical damage
      5. Chemical damage
  3. Common Pathologies of Organ Systems Pertinent to Massage and Bodywork
    1. Integumentary
    2. Muscular & Skeletal
    3. Nervous
    4. Endocrine
    5. Cardiovascular
    6. Lymphatic / Immune
    7. Respiratory
  4. Theory and Concepts in Pathology Applied to Massage and Bodywork
    1. Red Flag: total/absolute contraindications
    2. Red/Yellow Flag: total contraindication if acute, severe, extensive, uncontrolled; or if not, 
      local contraindication with cautions
    3. Yellow Flag:  local contraindication, cautions, physician approval/advice, adaptive
    4. Adaptive Measures:  modify pressure, position, technique, duration, frequency 
  5. Cautions, Contraindications and Adaptive Measures for Common Pathologies in Massage and Bodywork
    1. Pathologies of the Integumentary System and General Manifestations
      1. Red Flag:  Chickenpox, Rubella (German Measles), Impetigo, Lice, Measles,               Ringworm, Scabies
      2. Red/Yellow Flag:  Cellulitis, Contact Dermatitis, Hives, Shingles, Scleroderma
      3. Yellow Flag:  Acne, Athlete’s Foot, Boil, Bruise, Burns, Cyst, Eczema, Herpes Simplex, Nail Fungus, Open Wound, Psoriasis, Skin Tags, Ulcer
    2. Pathologies of the Muscular and Skeletal Systems and General Manifestations
      1. Red/Yellow Flag:  Amputation, Headaches, Herniated Disc, Lyme Disease,               Reumatoid Arthritis, Scoliosis, Whiplash, Osteoarthritis
      2. Yellow Flag:  Baker’s Cyst, Bunion, Bursitis, Fibromyalgia, Ganglion Cyst, Gout,               Osteoporosis, Osgood-Schlatter Disease, Repetitive Strain Injury, Sprain, Strain
    3. Pathologies of the Nervous System and General Manifestations
      1. Red Flag:  Conjunctivitis
      2. Red/Yellow Flag:  Dementia & Alzheimers, Head Injury, Huntington’s, Lou Gehrig’s, Multiple Sclerosis, Neuropathy, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
      3. Yellow Flag: Carpal Tunnel, Guillian-Barre, Myasthinia Gravis, Nerve Compression, Parkinson’s, Radiculopathy, Vertigo
    4. Pathologies of the Endocrine System and General Manifestations
      1. Yellow Flag:  Addison’s, Cushing’s, Diabetes, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism
    5. Pathologies of the Cardiovascular System and General Manifestation  
      1. Red Flag:  Hemophilia, Uncontrolled Hypertension
      2. Red/Yellow Flag:  Aneurysm, Congestive Heart Failure, Controlled Hypertension, Embolism
      3. Yellow Flag:  Arteriosclerosis, Coronary Artery Disease, Hematoma, High Cholesterol, Peripheral Vascular Disease, Phlebitis, Raynaud’s, Thrombosis, Varicose Veins
    6. Pathologies of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems and General Manifestations
      1. Red Flag:  Fever, Lymphangitis, Mononucleosis
      2. Red/Yellow Flag: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Lymphedema (Edema), Lupus
      3. Yellow Flag:  Allergies, Chronic Fatigue
    7. Pathologies of the Respiratory System and General Manifestations
      1. Red Flag:  Influenza, Pulmonary Embolism, Respiratory Distress
      2. Red/Yellow Flag:  Bronchitis, Cold, COPD, Emphysema, Laryngitis, Pleurisy, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Edema, Sinusitis, Tuberculosis
      3. Yellow Flag:  Asthma, Hay Fever
    8. Specific Concerns and General Guidelines when working with Cancer Patients
  6. Interactions Between Bodywork and Medications
    1. Anti-inflammatories and analgesics
    2. Muscle relaxants
    3. Cardiovascular disease management
    4. Clot management
    5. Antidepressants
    6. Anti-anxiety medications
    7. Diabetes management
    8. Thyroid supplements
    9. Alcohol / drugs