
20222023 College Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

ENG 232  Thermodynamics 3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours 3 lecture periods 0 lab periods
Basic laws and examples of engineering applications of macroscopic thermodynamics. Includes an introduction to concepts and definitions, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, evaluating properties, control volume energy analysis, the second law of thermodynamics, using entropy, vapor power systems, gas power systems, and refrigeration and heat pump systems.
Prerequisite(s): MAT 241 and PHY 210IN
Course Learning Outcomes
 Demonstrate mastery of unit conversions, temperature scale conversions, and fundamental definitions involving systems, pressure, and temperature.
 Demonstrate the ability to correctly apply the first law of thermodynamics in various physical processes including power and refrigeration cycles.
 Demonstrate the ability to use thermodynamic tables when analyzing closed systems undergoing processes involving phase changes in containers having moving boundaries with both insulated and diathermic walls.
 Demonstrate the ability to apply controlvolume analysis for open systems involving various mechanical devices which include being able to apply the conservation of mass and the relatedrate form of the first law of thermodynamics in the context of engineering steadystate flow problems.
 Demonstrate the ability to correctly apply various forms of the second law of thermodynamics in physical situations including determining maximum efficiency of power and refrigeration cycles.
Performance Objectives:
 Apply SI and English units for mass, length, time, force, and temperature.
 Explain absolute pressure and gage pressure, as well as methods and instruments used for its measurement.
 Convert temperature readings in Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, or Rankine scales to any other scale.
 Identify an appropriate system, its boundary, and its surroundings.
 Describe the difference between an isothermal process and an adiabatic process.
 Evaluate kinetic and potential energy, work and power in various engineering systems including mechanical, electrical, and thermodynamic.
 Identify and quantify heat transfer by various modes including conduction, radiation, and convection.
 Apply closed system energy balances.
 Conduct energy analyses for systems undergoing thermodynamic cycles.
 Analyze saturation temperature, saturation pressure, state principle, quality, enthalpy, specific heat, and ideal gas model.
 Retrieve property data of various fluids and gases from the appropriate tables, using the state principle of fix states and linear interpolation when required.
 Sketch Tv, pv, and pT diagrams, and locate principal states on these diagrams.
 Determine specific volume, enthalpy, and internal energy of a simple compressible system in the midst of a liquid–vapor phase change using quality and the appropriate tables.
 Apply the incompressible substance model and use the generalized compressibility chart to relate pvT data of gases.
 Apply the ideal gas model for thermodynamic analysis.
 Explain the concepts of mass flow rate, mass rate balance, volumetric flow rate, steady state, flow work.
 Identify devices such as muzzle, diffuser, turbine, compressor, pump and heat exchanger.
 Apply control volumes and the principles of conservation of mass and energy rate balance to model steady state flow through various mechanical devices.
 Apply mass and energy balances for the analysis of transient flow, using control volumes, appropriate assumptions, and property data.
 Define the concepts of reversible process, irreversible process, internal and external irreversibilities internally reversible process, Carnot corollaries, and Carnot efficiency.
 Describe the Clausisus and the KelvinPlanck statement of the second law of thermodynamics.
 Evaluate the performance of power cycles and refrigeration and heat pump cycles accounting for irreversibilities.
 Apply entropy balances for closed systems and for control systems.
 Use entropy data appropriately to include: retrieving data from appropriate tables, using quality to evaluate the specific entropy of twophase liquidvapor mixtures, sketching Ts and hs diagrams and locating states on such diagrams, determining Ds of ideal gases with constant or variable specific heats, evaluating isentropic efficiencies for turbines, nozzles, compressors, and pumps with ideal gases.
 Compute heat transfer for close systems.
 Sketch schematic diagrams and accompanying Ts diagrams of Rankine, superheat, and reheat vapor power cycles.
 Apply conservation of mass and energy, the second law, and property data to determine power cycle performance.
 Identify the effects on Rankine cycle performance of varying steam generator pressure, condenser pressure, and turbine inlet temperature.
 Sketch pv and Ts diagrams of the Otto, Diesel, and dual cycles, applying the closed system energy balance and the second law of thermodynamics.
 Sketch the Ts diagrams of vaporcompression refrigeration and heat pump cycles.
 List the advantages and disadvantages of various refrigerants commonly in use.
Outline:
 Introduction: Concepts and Definitions
 Using thermodynamics
 Defining systems and describing their behavior
 Measuring mass, length, time, and force
 Specific volume and specific pressure
 Measuring temperature
 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
 Reviewing mechanical concepts of energy
 Evaluating energy transfer by work
 Energy of a system
 Energy transfer by heat
 Energy balance for closed systems
 Energy analysis of cycles
 Evaluating Properties
 pvT relation
 Retrieving thermodynamic properties
 Generalized compressibility chart
 Ideal gas model
 Internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heats of idea gases
 Evaluating Du and Dh of ideal gases
 Polytropic process of an ideal gas
 Control Volume Energy Analysis
 Conservation of mass for a control volume
 Conservation of energy for a control volume
 Analysis of control volumes at steady state
 Transient analysis
 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
 Using the second law and statements of the second law
 Reversible and irreversible processes
 Applying the second law to thermodynamic cycles
 Kelvin temperature scale
 Maximum performance measures for cycles operating between two reservoirs
 Carnot cycle
 Using Entropy
 Defining entropy change
 Retrieving entropy data
 Entropy change in internally reversible processes
 Entropy rate balance for control volumes
 Isentropic processes
 Isentropic efficiencies of turbines, nozzles, compressors, and pumps
 Heat transfer and work in internally reversible, steadystate flow processes
 Vapor Power Systems
 Modeling vapor power systems
 Analyzing vapor power systems: Rankine cycle
 Improving performance: superheat and reheat
 Gas Power Systems
 Engine terminology
 AirStandard otto cycle
 AirStandard diesel cycle
 AirStandard dual cycle
 Brayton cycle
 Regeneration, reheat and compression with intercooling
 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems
 Vapor refrigeration systems
 Analyzing vaporcompression refrigeration systems
 Heat pump systems

