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# ENG 232 - Thermodynamics

3 Credits, 3 Contact Hours
3 lecture periods 0 lab periods

Basic laws and examples of engineering applications of macroscopic thermodynamics. Includes an introduction to concepts and definitions, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, evaluating properties, control volume energy analysis, the second law of thermodynamics, using entropy, vapor power systems, gas power systems, and refrigeration and heat pump systems.

Prerequisite(s): MAT 241  and PHY 210IN

Course Learning Outcomes
1. Demonstrate mastery of unit conversions, temperature scale conversions, and fundamental definitions involving systems, pressure, and temperature.
2. Demonstrate the ability to correctly apply the first law of thermodynamics in various physical processes including power and refrigeration cycles.
3. Demonstrate the ability to use thermodynamic tables when analyzing closed systems undergoing processes involving phase changes in containers having moving boundaries with both insulated and diathermic walls.
4. Demonstrate the ability to apply control-volume analysis for open systems involving various mechanical devices which include being able to apply the conservation of mass and the related-rate form of the first law of thermodynamics in the context of engineering steady-state flow problems.
5. Demonstrate the ability to correctly apply various forms of the second law of thermodynamics in physical situations including determining maximum efficiency of power and refrigeration cycles.

Performance Objectives:
1. Apply SI and English units for mass, length, time, force, and temperature.
2. Explain absolute pressure and gage pressure, as well as methods and instruments used for its measurement.
3. Convert temperature readings in Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, or Rankine scales to any other scale.
4. Identify an appropriate system, its boundary, and its surroundings.
5. Describe the difference between an isothermal process and an adiabatic process.
6. Evaluate kinetic and potential energy, work and power in various engineering systems including mechanical, electrical, and thermodynamic.
7. Identify and quantify heat transfer by various modes including conduction, radiation, and convection.
8. Apply closed system energy balances.
9. Conduct energy analyses for systems undergoing thermodynamic cycles.
10. Analyze saturation temperature, saturation pressure, state principle, quality, enthalpy, specific heat, and ideal gas model.
11. Retrieve property data of various fluids and gases from the appropriate tables, using the state principle of fix states and linear interpolation when required.
12. Sketch T-v, p-v, and p-T diagrams, and locate principal states on these diagrams.
13. Determine specific volume, enthalpy, and internal energy of a simple compressible system in the midst of a liquid–vapor phase change using quality and the appropriate tables.
14. Apply the incompressible substance model and use the generalized compressibility chart to relate p-v-T data of gases.
15. Apply the ideal gas model for thermodynamic analysis.
16. Explain the concepts of mass flow rate, mass rate balance, volumetric flow rate, steady state, flow work.
17. Identify devices such as muzzle, diffuser, turbine, compressor, pump and heat exchanger.
18. Apply control volumes and the principles of conservation of mass and energy rate balance to model steady state flow through various mechanical devices.
19. Apply mass and energy balances for the analysis of transient flow, using control volumes, appropriate assumptions, and property data.
20. Define the concepts of reversible process, irreversible process, internal and external irreversibilities internally reversible process, Carnot corollaries, and Carnot efficiency.
21. Describe the Clausisus and the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law of thermodynamics.
22. Evaluate the performance of power cycles and refrigeration and heat pump cycles accounting for irreversibilities.
23. Apply entropy balances for closed systems and for control systems.
24. Use entropy data appropriately to include: retrieving data from appropriate tables, using quality to evaluate the specific entropy of two-phase liquid-vapor mixtures, sketching T-s and h-s diagrams and locating states on such diagrams, determining Ds of ideal gases with constant or variable specific heats, evaluating isentropic efficiencies for turbines, nozzles, compressors, and pumps with ideal gases.
25. Compute heat transfer for close systems.
26. Sketch schematic diagrams and accompanying T-s diagrams of Rankine, superheat, and reheat vapor power cycles.
27. Apply conservation of mass and energy, the second law, and property data to determine power cycle performance.
28. Identify the effects on Rankine cycle performance of varying steam generator pressure, condenser pressure, and turbine inlet temperature.
29. Sketch p-v and T-s diagrams of the Otto, Diesel, and dual cycles, applying the closed system energy balance and the second law of thermodynamics.
30. Sketch the T-s diagrams of vapor-compression refrigeration and heat pump cycles.
31. List the advantages and disadvantages of various refrigerants commonly in use.

Outline:
1. Introduction: Concepts and Definitions
1. Using thermodynamics
2. Defining systems and describing their behavior
3. Measuring mass, length, time, and force
4. Specific volume and specific pressure
5. Measuring temperature
2. Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
1. Reviewing mechanical concepts of energy
2. Evaluating energy transfer by work
3. Energy of a system
4. Energy transfer by heat
5. Energy balance for closed systems
6. Energy analysis of cycles
3. Evaluating Properties
1. p-v-T relation
2. Retrieving thermodynamic properties
3. Generalized compressibility chart
4. Ideal gas model
5. Internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heats of idea gases
6. Evaluating Du and Dh of ideal gases
7. Polytropic process of an ideal gas
4. Control Volume Energy Analysis
1. Conservation of mass for a control volume
2. Conservation of energy for a control volume
3. Analysis of control volumes at steady state
4. Transient analysis
5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1. Using the second law and statements of the second law
2. Reversible and irreversible processes
3. Applying the second law to thermodynamic cycles
4. Kelvin temperature scale
5. Maximum performance measures for cycles operating between two reservoirs
6. Carnot cycle
6. Using Entropy
1. Defining entropy change
2. Retrieving entropy data
3. Entropy change in internally reversible processes
4. Entropy rate balance for control volumes
5. Isentropic processes
6. Isentropic efficiencies of turbines, nozzles, compressors, and pumps
7. Heat transfer and work in internally reversible, steady-state flow processes
7. Vapor Power Systems
1. Modeling vapor power systems
2. Analyzing vapor power systems: Rankine cycle
3. Improving performance: superheat and reheat
8. Gas Power Systems
1. Engine terminology
2. Air-Standard otto cycle
3. Air-Standard diesel cycle
4. Air-Standard dual cycle
5. Brayton cycle
6. Regeneration, reheat and compression with intercooling
9. Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems
1. Vapor refrigeration systems
2. Analyzing vapor-compression refrigeration systems
3. Heat pump systems