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# PHY 221IN - Introduction to Waves and Heat

3 Credits, 5 Contact Hours
2 lecture periods 3 lab periods

Calculus-based introduction to waves and heat for physics, mathematics and engineering majors. Includes fluid statics and dynamics, temperature, heat and thermodynamics, kinetic theory, thermodynamics and entropy, oscillations and simple harmonic motion, and wave motion. Also includes electromagnetic waves and the propagation of light, diffraction and interference, reflection and refraction at plane surfaces, and spherical mirrors and lenses.

Prerequisite(s): With a grade of C or higher: MAT 231  and PHY 210IN .
Gen-Ed: Meets AGEC - SCI; Meets CTE - M&S.

Course Learning Outcomes
1. Demonstrate improvements in critical thinking skills, including the application of physical laws to explain physical phenomena,
2. Describe, graph, and apply appropriate mathematical models to oscillatory motion, matter waves, and electromagnetic waves.
3. Analyze the thermodynamic state of a system using the concepts of heat, the ideal gas law, and the laws of thermodynamics.
4. Use principles of fluid mechanics (including Archimedes’ principle and Bernoulli’s equation) to predict outcomes.
5. Explain the interactions between energy and matter.
6. Apply the concepts of optical interference, diffraction, reflection, refraction, intensity, and image formation in lenses and mirrors to solve optics problems.

Performance Objectives:
1. Apply the concepts of Newtonian mechanics to derive and apply the equations describing static fluids, including the concepts of mass density and pressure.
2. Apply the concepts from Newtonian mechanics to derive and apply Bernoulli’s equation, and the equation of continuity to streamline flow for fluids in motion.
3. Derive and apply the fundamental concepts of temperature, equations of state, thermal equilibrium, and the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics, and the ideal temperature scale.
4. Derive and apply the definition of heat, specific heat, and heat capacity, apply the principles of calorimetry, the mechanical equivalent of heat, heat transfer, work done on, and by a gas, and the coefficient of linear expansion.
5. Derive and apply the concept of internal energy and the first law of thermodynamics.
6. Derive and apply the basic equations from kinetic theory, including the kinetic calculation of pressure and temperature, the kinetic interpretation of temperature and internal energy, work done on and by, an ideal gas.
7. Define reversible and irreversible processes, derive the basic equations defining the reversible heat engine and refrigerator, derive and apply the basic equations describing the Carnot cycle, derive and apply the concept of entropy, and the second law of thermodynamics.
8. Derive the basic equation of motion describing the action of a linear restoring force on a mass, describe and apply the fundamental equations of simple harmonic motion, derive and describe the relationship between SHM, and uniform circular motion.
9. Derive and apply the basic equations describing energy in simple harmonic motion (SHM).
10. Derive and apply the basic equations of wave motion, describe mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves, derive and apply the speed of a traveling wave, the power, and the intensity of a traveling wave, and the interference of waves.
11. Derive and apply the basic equations describing double and single slit diffraction, and the basic equations describing intensity in double and single slit interference.
12. Apply the theory of wave reversibility upon reflection and transmission to wave interference.
13. Derive and apply the basic equations of wave reflection and refraction at plane surfaces, including the law of reflection and Snell’s law.
14. Derive and apply the basic first order equations of image formation by plane and spherically curved mirrors.
15. Derive and apply the basic first order equations of thin lenses, including image formation by plane and spherically curved refracting surfaces, including the tine lens formula.
16. Derive and apply the basic concepts of first order geometric optics for plane and spherically curved reflecting and refracting surfaces.

Outline:
1. Fluid Statics
1. Fluids and solids
2. Mass density and pressure
3. The pressure differential equation and the variation of pressure with depth in a static fluid
4. Pascal’s and Archimedes’ principles
2. Fluid Dynamics
1. General fluid flow
2. Streamlines and the equation of continuity
3. Bernoulli’s equation
4. Applications of Bernoulli’s equation and the equation of continuity
5. Fields of flow, viscosity, turbulence, and chaotic flow (optional)
3. Temperature
1. Macroscopic and microscopic descriptions
2. Temperature and thermal equilibrium
3. Temperature measurement and the ideal gas temperature scale
4. Thermal expansion
4. Heat and First Law of Thermodynamics
1. Definition of heat as energy in transit
2. Heat capacity and specific heat
3. Heat capacities and solids and ideal gases
4. Work done by a gas
5. Adiabatic, isothermal, isochoric, and isobaric processes
6. Internal energy and the first law of thermodynamics
7. Applications of the first law
8. The transfer of heat and thermal conductivity
5. Kinetic Theory
1. Microscopic and macroscopic interpretation
2. Kinetic calculation of pressure
3. Kinetic interpretation of temperature and the ideal gas law
4. Kinetic theory and internal energy
5. Kinetic theory and molar heat capacities Cp and Cv
6. The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy
1. Reversible and irreversible processes
2. Heat engines, refrigerators, and the second law
3. The Carnot cycle
4. The definition of entropy
5. The thermodynamic temperature scale
6. Entropy and reversible and irreversible processes
7. Entropy and probability
7. Oscillations and Simple Harmonic Motion
1. Oscillating systems
2. The linear restoring force and simple harmonic motion
3. Energy considerations in simple harmonic motion
4. Examples and applications of simple harmonic motion
5. Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion
8. Wave Motion
1. The dynamics of wave motion and the wave equation
2. Solutions to the wave equation: traveling waves
3. Types of mechanical waves: longitudinal and transverse
4. Wave speed, wave number, period, and frequency of a traveling wave
5. Power and intensity in wave motion
6. The principle of superposition and wave interference
7. Standing waves and resonance
8. Mechanical and electromagnetic waves
9. Electromagnetic Waves and the Propagation of Light
1. The electromagnetic spectrum and visible light
2. Coherence and double-slit interference
3. Phasor theory and the intensity in double-slit interference
4. Optical reversibility and phase change upon reflection and transmission
5. Thin film interference
10. Diffraction and Interference
1. Diffraction and the wave theory of light
2. Single-slit diffraction
3. Intensity in single-slit diffraction
4. Multiple slits and diffraction gratings
5. Dispersion and resolving power (optional)
11. Reflection and Refraction at Plane Surfaces
1. Reflection and refraction
2. The law of reflection and Snell’s law of refraction
3. Image formation by plane reflectors
4. Image formation by plane refractive surfaces
12. Spherical Mirrors and Lenses
1. Spherical mirrors and image formation, focal length and the first order of mirror equation
2. Spherical refracting surfaces and first order lens equation
3. Thin lenses
4. Geometric optics and ray diagrams
5. Compound optical systems and optical instruments (optional)

Effective Term:
Full Academic Year 2018/2019